Lecture 16-Chordates I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 16-Chordates I Deck (75):
1

1st characteristic exhibited by all chordates:

Notochord

2

2nd characteristic exhibited by all chordates:

Dorsal hollow nerve cord

3

3rd characteristic exhibited by all chordates:

Pharyngeal slits

4

4th characteristic exhibited by all chordates:

Muscular post-anal tail

5

Longitudinal flexible rod of fluid filled cells.

Notochord

6

Located between the digestive tract and nerve cord.

Notochord

7

Provides skeletal support in higher vertebrates.

Notochord

8

Develops in CNS. Ventral located in other animals (e.g. Arthropods).

Dorsal hollow nerve chord

9

Allow water to pass through mouth without entering digestive tract.

Pharyngeal slits

10

Involved in filter feeding and respiration (as gills).

Pharyngeal slits

11

Allows for propulsion.

Muscular post-anal tail

12

All chordates exhibit all 4 characteristics at some point during development, but may not be present in the __________ __________.

Adult stage

13

__________, __________, and __________ are all Gnathostomes.

Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyans, and Tetrapoda

14

__________ exhibit all four characteristics as an adult.

Lancelets

15

Lancelets are _____-like, but are not _____.

Fish, fish

16

In lancelets, pharyngeal slits are used for filter feeding; __________ aid in this process.

Cirri

17

__________ produce mucus to trap suspended particles.

Cirri

18

Do lancelets have a respiratory system?

No

19

Lancelets exchange gas through their __________.

Skin

20

Lancelets have __________ circulatory systems.

Closed

21

Lancelets do NOT have a __________ or __________, and rarely have __________ cells.

Heart, hemoglobin, blood

22

_________ have mobile larvae morphologically similar to the lancelet.

Tunicates

23

During adult metamorphosis, tunicates lose _____ of 4 chordate characteristics and become __________.

3, sessile

24

The adult stage of the tunicate is a __________ __________ __________ (using mucus to trap food).

Sessile filter feeder

25

Do tunicates have circulatory systems?

Yes

26

In tunicates __________ __________ perform some gas exchange.

Pharyngeal slits

27

Chordates with heads.

Craniates

28

__________, __________, and __________ are all subgroups of chordates.

Craniates, vertebrates, and Gnathostomes

29

__________ are craniates.

Hagfish

30

Hagfish have a __________ skull.

Cartilaginous

31

Hagfish lack __________ and __________.

Jaws and vertebrae

32

Hagfish produce __________ as an anti-predator defense.

Slime

33

Chordates with vertebrae.

Vertebrates

34

__________ are vertebrate chordates.

Lampreys

35

Lampreys have a __________ vertebral column (not calcified).

Cartilaginous

36

A lamprey's cartilaginous vertebral column is not __________.

Calcified

37

Lampreys lack __________.

Jaws

38

__________ lampreys filter feed using mucus (like lancelets).

Juvenile

39

Most __________ lampreys do not feed; some are parasitic and suck blood.

Adult

40

Chordates with jaws and vertebrae.

Gnathostomes

41

In gnathostomes, we now see the evolution of __________, __________ __________, and __________ ___________.

Jaws, paired fins, acquired immunity

42

__________ evolve from skeletal rods supporting gill slits.

Jaws

43

Chondrichthyes consist of:

Sharks and rays

44

Condrichthyes have __________ skeletons with some __________.

Cartilaginous, bones

45

Ventrally flattened.

Dorso

46

Chondrichthyes are __________.

Dorso

47

Osteichthyans consist of:

Bony fish

48

In Osteichthyans, we see the evolution of __________ __________.

Bony endoskeleton

49

The two groups of Osteichthyans are:

Ray-fin fish and Lobe-fin fish

50

Ray-fin fish have __________ lungs.

Rudimentary

51

These fish have swim bladders.

Ray-fin fish

52

Sharks and rays are __________ flattened (dorso).

Ventrally

53

Ray-fin fish are __________ flattened.

Laterally

54

The most diverse of fish.

Ray-fin fish

55

In lobe-fin fish, we see the evolution of fins with __________ __________ bones supporting __________.

Rod-shaped, muscle

56

2,types of lobe-fin fish are:

Coelacanth and lung fish

57

Coelacanth are thought to have been extinct for how long?

75 MY

58

__________ __________ have gills.

Lung fish

59

Lung fish survive terrestrial desiccation via in the mud using a __________ __________.

Mucus cocoon

60

In __________, we see the evolution of legs from lobe-finned lung fish.

Tetrapods

61

The Tiktaalik fossil posses both __________ and __________ characteristics.

Tetrapod and fish

62

In the Tiktaalik fossil (Tetrapoda), we see fins with __________.

Wrists

63

In the Tiktaalik fossil (Tetrapoda), we see the evolution of a __________.

Neck

64

In the Tiktaalik fossil (Tetrapoda), we see expanded __________.

Ribs

65

In the Tiktaalik fossil (Tetrapoda), we see __________ heads.

Flat

66

The Tiktaalik fossil (Tetrapoda) are likely to have lived in __________ __________.

Shallow waters

67

There are 9 Important evolutionary adaptations in the chordates. Which is the 1st?

1. The evolution of the 4 chordate characteristics

68

There are 9 Important evolutionary adaptations in the chordates. Which is the 2nd?

Head

69

There are 9 Important evolutionary adaptations in the chordates. Which is the 3rd?

Vertebral column

70

There are 9 Important evolutionary adaptations in the chordates. Which is the 4th?

Jaws, mineralized skeleton, paired fins

71

There are 9 Important evolutionary adaptations in the chordates. Which is the 5th?

Lungs/lung derivatives

72

There are 9 Important evolutionary adaptations in the chordates. Which is the 6th?

Lobed fins

73

There are 9 Important evolutionary adaptations in the chordates. Which is the 7th?

Legs

74

There are 9 Important evolutionary adaptations in the chordates. Which is the 8th?

Amniotic egg

75

There are 9 Important evolutionary adaptations in the chordates. Which is the 9th?

Milk