Lecture 13-Animal Diversity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 13-Animal Diversity Deck (63):
1

Derived trait #1 of animals:

They are multicellular ingesting heterotrophs

2

Derived trait #2 of animals:

They have unique tissues, such as muscle and nervous tissue

3

Derived trait #3 of animals:

Lack cell walls

4

Derived trait #4 of animals:

Intercellular junctions

5

Animal cell support is provided by __________ __________ and __________.

Extracellular matrix, cytoskeleton

6

Extracellular matrices are made up of:

Collagen and proteoglycans

7

Cytoskeleton is composed of __________ and __________.

Microtubules and microfilaments

8

The 3 types of intercellular junctions are:

Tight junctions, desmosomes, and gap junctions

9

"Suture junctions"

Tight junctions

10

"Anchoring junctions"

Desmosomes

11

"Communicating junctions"

Gap junctions

12

__________ __________ are protein binding of neighboring plasma membranes; water tight.

Tight junctions

13

These help the fluids stay in your body.

Tight junctions

14

__________ and strong, rivet-like proteins that connect tissues into strong sheets (e.g. muscles).

Desmosomes

15

__________ __________ provide a pore through which cellular products can be exchanged.

Gap junctions

16

These are important in keeping your heart beating.

Gap junctions

17

These do NOT really offer structural support.

Gap junctions

18

__________ are the closest protist relatives of the animal.

Choanoflagellates

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__________ __________ are found only in animals and choanoflagellates.

Collar cells

20

Animals and choanoflagellates have _____ __________ similarity.

DNA sequence

21

Choanoflagellates and animals have a near __________ morphology with what?

Identical, sponge collar cells

22

In the late Proterozoic eon was the __________ period.

Ediacaran

23

What happened in the Ediacaran period? When was this?

The first good animal fossils came about, 575 MYA

24

What developed in the late Proterozoic eon?

Basic body plans

25

The first macroscopic animal fossils formed:

575 MYA

26

The Ediacaran period was just prior to what?

The Cambrian explosion

27

When was the Cambrian explosion?

550 MYA

28

The Cambrain explosion caused rapid __________ in animal order.

Increase

29

During the Cambrian explosion, what was established?

Major phyla

30

Diversification due to the Cambrian was likely caused by:

An increase in oxygen, diversifying selection, and Hox gene duplications

31

__________ __________ provides more ATP per unit of glucose.

Aerobic metabolism

32

Most animal phyla appear during what?

The Cambrian explosion

33

Novel niche exploitation and predator prey dynamics are both due to what?

Diversifying selection

34

The Cambrian explosion caused __________ diversity.

Animal

35

_____% of animals are insects.

75%

36

_____% of animals are beetles.

35%

37

_____% of animals are vertebrates.

5%

38

_____% are mammals.

<0.001%

39

The life cycle of an animal does NOT include what?

Alternation of generations

40

In animals, the __________ stage dominates life cycle.

Diploid

41

Animals reproduce mostly through:

Sexual reproduction

42

Animals have __________ sperm.

Flagellated

43

Animals have __________, __________ eggs.

Large, non-motile

44

An animal zygote undergoes __________ and turns into a __________.

Cleavage, blastula

45

A __________ resembles a hollow ball.

Blastula

46

Blastulas undergo __________ and turn into __________.

Gastrulation, gastrulas

47

A gastrula has defined __________ and __________.

Endoderm, ectoderm

48

The lining of gastrula is the:

Endoderm

49

Exterior cells of the gastrula:

Ectoderm

50

These master regulatory genes that dictate developing body plan.

Hox genes

51

Hox genes are what?

Evolutionarily conserved

52

Being __________ __________ means having a strong selection against modification, causing these genes to be similar across different animals.

Evolutionarily conserved

53

In Hox genes, there is linear correlation between __________ __________ and __________ __________. This is odd!

Body axis, chromosomal position

54

__________ mutations can lead to __________ changes.

Small, big

55

__________ __________ allow greater anatomical complexity.

Gene duplications

56

In protostomes, cleavage is _________.

Spiral

57

In deuterostomes, cleavage is __________.

Radial

58

In protostomes, cleavage is __________, which means the fate of early cells are determined.

Determinate

59

In deuterostomes, cleavage is __________, which means the fate of early cells in undetermined.

Indeterminate

60

Spiral cleavage = cells __________.

Offset

61

Radial cleavage = cells __________.

Linear

62

In protostomes, coelom forms from __________ __________.

Mesoderm split

63

In deuterostomes, coelom forms from __________ __________.

Archenteron out-pockets