Lecture 23-Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 23-Endocrine System Deck (66):
0

The endocrine system coordinates body activities such as:

Digestion and metabolism

1

The endocrine system transmits __________ to receptive cells throughout the body via __________.

Hormones, blood

2

The endocrine system affects __________ _____ __________ regions throughout the body.

One or more

3

The endocrine system is relatively __________ acting, but has __________ lasting effects.

Slow, long

4

Hormones are the __________ __________ for the endocrine system.

Signal molecules

5

Hormones are secreted by __________ __________.

Endocrine cells

6

Endocrine cells are found in __________ or from __________ __________.

Organs, endocrine glands

7

Endocrine cells only bind to target cells with:

Specific receptors

8

Endocrine cells regulate:

Reproduction, development, energy metabolism, growth, behavior, etc.

9

Hormones vary in characteristics and the __________ determines the location of receptors in target cells.

Solubility

10

Types of water-soluble hormones are:

Polypeptides and amines

11

Types of fat-soluble hormones are:

Steroids and amines

12

Hormones that are water-soluble have __________ __________ receptors.

Plasma membrane

13

Hormones that are fat-soluble have __________ __________ receptors.

Cell nucleus

14

The target response in water-soluble hormones is:

A change in cytoplasmic function or gene transcription.

15

The target response in fat-soluble hormones is:

A binding to intracellular signal receptors, activating gene transcription

16

The target response for water-soluble hormones requires:

ATP

17

One hormone can have different effects in different:

Targets

18

The 6 endocrine glands/organs are:

The hypothalamus, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, pancreas, and adrenal glands

19

The __________ and __________ __________ are both in the brain.

Hypothalamus, pineal gland

20

Where is the pancreas located?

Between the small intestine and stomach

21

Where are the adrenal glands located?

On top of the kidneys

22

What hormones are produced by the hypothalamus?

Hypothalamic hormones and neurohormones

23

What hormone is produced by the pineal gland?

Melatonin

24

What hormone is produced by the thyroid gland?

TSH

25

What hormone is produced by the parathyroid glands?

Parathyroid hormones

26

What hormones are produced by the pancreas?

Insulin and glucagon

27

What hormones are produced by the adrenal glands?

Estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, cortisone

28

Links nervous system to endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

Hypothalamus

29

Maintains metabolic processes.

Thyroid gland

30

Regulates blood calcium levels.

Parathyroid gland

31

Keeps biorhythm.

Pineal gland

32

Controls blood sugar levels and helps digest food.

Pancreas

33

Elicits a fight or flight response.

Adrenal glands

34

Posterior pituitary gland produces __________ __________ which regulates blood molarity.

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

35

__________ __________ __________ produces antidiuretic hormone which regulates blood molarity.

Posterior pituitary gland

36

Normally, blood osmolarity is:

300mOsm/L

37

ADH __________ water permeability in the nephron.

Increases

38

ADH increases water permeability in the nephron. This leads to:

More water reabsorption

39

If normal blood osmolarity increases, osmoreceptors in the __________ trigger the release of ADH from the posterior pituitary gland.

Hypothalamus

40

The __________ __________ __________ is a master gland that produces many hormones.

Anterior pituitary gland

41

The anterior pituitary gland specifically produces many __________ __________.

Tropic hormones

42

Tropic hormones regulate the function of:

Endocrine cells or glands

43

__________ __________ is one the the hormones produced by anterior pituitary gland.

Growth hormone

44

A benign tumor of the pituitary gland can cause continuous and excessive growth hormone production, which results in a condition known as:

Acromegaly

45

The __________ __________ produces hormones to stimulate and maintain metabolic processes.

Thyroid gland

46

Too little thyroid function can result in:

Weight gain, lethargy, and intolerance to cold

47

Too much thyroid function can result in:

High body temperature, sweating, weight loss, irritability, and high blood pressure

48

Bulging eyes and goiters are characteristic of:

Graves' diseases

49

The __________ __________ produces hormones to regulate blood calcium level.

Parathyroid gland

50

If blood calcium level falls below normal range, PTH stimulates calcium uptake in __________ of the excretory system and __________ in the digestive system.

Kidneys, intestines

51

If blood calcium level falls below normal range, PTH stimulates calcium calcium release from __________.

Bone *this is important for bone growth

52

The pancreas produces hormones that regulate blood __________ levels.

Glucose

53

Lowers blood glucose levels.

Insulin

54

Insulin is produced from __________ cells.

Beta

55

Increases blood glucose levels.

Glucagon

56

Glucagon is produced from __________ cells.

Alpha

57

Insulin and glucagon are both __________ and __________ hormones.

Water-soluble, polypeptide

58

___________ is the deficiency of insulin or decreased response to insulin in target tissues.

Diabetes

59

Insulin-dependent diabetes. Autoimmune disorder (immune system destroys beta cells of the pancreas).

Type 1 diabetes

60

Non insulin-dependent diabetes. Target cells fail to take up glucose from blood, resulting in general insulin deficiency.

Type 2 diabetes

61

Adrenal glands produces hormones in response to __________.

Stress

62

For short term stress, adrenal glands produce __________ and __________.

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

63

For long term stress, adrenal glands produce __________ and __________.

Mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids

64

During fight-or-flight response, what in our bodies increases?

Blood glucose, blood pressure, and metabolic rate

65

During fight-or-flight, what changes?

Blood flow patterns