Flashcards in Lecture 23-Endocrine System Deck (66):
The endocrine system coordinates body activities such as:
Digestion and metabolism
The endocrine system transmits __________ to receptive cells throughout the body via __________.
The endocrine system affects __________ _____ __________ regions throughout the body.
One or more
The endocrine system is relatively __________ acting, but has __________ lasting effects.
Hormones are the __________ __________ for the endocrine system.
Hormones are secreted by __________ __________.
Endocrine cells are found in __________ or from __________ __________.
Organs, endocrine glands
Endocrine cells only bind to target cells with:
Endocrine cells regulate:
Reproduction, development, energy metabolism, growth, behavior, etc.
Hormones vary in characteristics and the __________ determines the location of receptors in target cells.
Types of water-soluble hormones are:
Polypeptides and amines
Types of fat-soluble hormones are:
Steroids and amines
Hormones that are water-soluble have __________ __________ receptors.
Hormones that are fat-soluble have __________ __________ receptors.
The target response in water-soluble hormones is:
A change in cytoplasmic function or gene transcription.
The target response in fat-soluble hormones is:
A binding to intracellular signal receptors, activating gene transcription
The target response for water-soluble hormones requires:
One hormone can have different effects in different:
The 6 endocrine glands/organs are:
The hypothalamus, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, pancreas, and adrenal glands
The __________ and __________ __________ are both in the brain.
Hypothalamus, pineal gland
Where is the pancreas located?
Between the small intestine and stomach
Where are the adrenal glands located?
On top of the kidneys
What hormones are produced by the hypothalamus?
Hypothalamic hormones and neurohormones
What hormone is produced by the pineal gland?
What hormone is produced by the thyroid gland?
What hormone is produced by the parathyroid glands?
What hormones are produced by the pancreas?
Insulin and glucagon
What hormones are produced by the adrenal glands?
Estrogen, progesterone, steroids, cortisol, cortisone
Links nervous system to endocrine system via the pituitary gland.
Maintains metabolic processes.
Regulates blood calcium levels.
Controls blood sugar levels and helps digest food.
Elicits a fight or flight response.
Posterior pituitary gland produces __________ __________ which regulates blood molarity.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
__________ __________ __________ produces antidiuretic hormone which regulates blood molarity.
Posterior pituitary gland
Normally, blood osmolarity is:
ADH __________ water permeability in the nephron.
ADH increases water permeability in the nephron. This leads to:
More water reabsorption
If normal blood osmolarity increases, osmoreceptors in the __________ trigger the release of ADH from the posterior pituitary gland.
The __________ __________ __________ is a master gland that produces many hormones.
Anterior pituitary gland
The anterior pituitary gland specifically produces many __________ __________.
Tropic hormones regulate the function of:
Endocrine cells or glands
__________ __________ is one the the hormones produced by anterior pituitary gland.
A benign tumor of the pituitary gland can cause continuous and excessive growth hormone production, which results in a condition known as:
The __________ __________ produces hormones to stimulate and maintain metabolic processes.
Too little thyroid function can result in:
Weight gain, lethargy, and intolerance to cold
Too much thyroid function can result in:
High body temperature, sweating, weight loss, irritability, and high blood pressure
Bulging eyes and goiters are characteristic of:
The __________ __________ produces hormones to regulate blood calcium level.
If blood calcium level falls below normal range, PTH stimulates calcium uptake in __________ of the excretory system and __________ in the digestive system.
If blood calcium level falls below normal range, PTH stimulates calcium calcium release from __________.
Bone *this is important for bone growth
The pancreas produces hormones that regulate blood __________ levels.
Lowers blood glucose levels.
Insulin is produced from __________ cells.
Increases blood glucose levels.
Glucagon is produced from __________ cells.
Insulin and glucagon are both __________ and __________ hormones.
___________ is the deficiency of insulin or decreased response to insulin in target tissues.
Insulin-dependent diabetes. Autoimmune disorder (immune system destroys beta cells of the pancreas).
Type 1 diabetes
Non insulin-dependent diabetes. Target cells fail to take up glucose from blood, resulting in general insulin deficiency.
Type 2 diabetes
Adrenal glands produces hormones in response to __________.
For short term stress, adrenal glands produce __________ and __________.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
For long term stress, adrenal glands produce __________ and __________.
Mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids
During fight-or-flight response, what in our bodies increases?
Blood glucose, blood pressure, and metabolic rate