Lec 2 - 3 - Bacterial Genetics Flashcards Preview

Dental Microbiology > Lec 2 - 3 - Bacterial Genetics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lec 2 - 3 - Bacterial Genetics Deck (35):
1

a preferential outgrowth of selected clones

selective advantage

2

staph aureus has antibiotic resistance thanks to blank like plasmids and transposons

extrachromosomal elements

3

some pathogens only become virulent only after acquiring blank like a vector

mobile genetic elements

4

pathogen stops producing a certain protein that was recognized by antibodies

phase variation

5

pathogen changes the protein that it is producing to a different form

antigenic variation

6

RNAP is directional and goes blank

one way

7

three mechanisms for genetic variation

random mutation, non random (programmed), direct/indirect transmission

8

arise from errors made during dna replication that alter genome of a single bacterium

random mutations

9

example of random mutations causing resistance to blank

streptomycin

10

non random variation is caused by different antigenic variants of blank

Opa gene/protein

11

non random variation makes it really hard to develop blank

vaccines

12

there are blank opa genes in the chromosome

8-11

13

non random variation is due to blank mutations from blank making mistakes

frameshift, dna polymerase

14

repetition of dna sequence

duplication

15

flip flop of dna sequence

inversion

16

dna inversion controls blank in salmonella typhimurium so bacterium can swim through mucous to get to epithelium

flagellar phase variation

17

flagellar phase variation is due to proteins switching between these two forms

H1, H2

18

enzyme incoded by the invertible gene

Hin

19

four mechanisms for exchange of genetic information and are either direct or indirect transmission

transformation, transduction, conjugation, transposition

20

uptake of naked dna

transformation

21

transfer involves a bacteriophage

transduction

22

cell to cell contact transmission

conjugation

23

mobile genetic elements

transposition

24

most famous experiment for transformation

griffith

25

long rod like structures composed of polymeric arrays of a single pilin protein

pili

26

pili are involved in blank

adhesion of bacterium to cells and surfaces

27

blank variation occurs when there is an error in homologous recombination which is called aberrant recombination

phase variation

28

dna transfer via dna packaging mistakes during bacteriophage morphogenesis

transduction

29

transduction is used a lot in the lab to blank

create new strains

30

extrachromosomal elements that are stably inherited

plasmids

31

some plasmids have the ability to blank which means move from one bacteria to another

conjugate

32

during conjugation, there is an exchange of genetic material through blank

cell to cell contact

33

genetic elements that can go from one site in dna to another site

transposons

34

transposition does not require blank regions between transposon and site of transposition

homologous

35

transposon insertion usually requires a blank which interacts with the blank

transposase, inverted repeats