Lec 5-3 - Antimicrobial Agents Flashcards Preview

Dental Microbiology > Lec 5-3 - Antimicrobial Agents > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lec 5-3 - Antimicrobial Agents Deck (34):
1

ability to kill susceptible microbes

bactericidal

2

ability to inhibit essential metabolic pathways and block the growth of the microbe

bacteriostatic

3

minimum concentration required to inhibit bacteria growth

MIC

4

minimum concentration to kill 99.9% bacteria

MBC

5

method to find mic or mbc by serial dilution of antibiotics mixed with constant amount of inoculum

tube dilution

6

the range of activity of each antibiotic

spectrum

7

drug with more selectivity

narrow spectrum

8

drug that reacts against a lot of bacteria types

broad spectrum

9

this is when there is a lack of definite diagnosis so braod spectrum antibiotics are often used for treatment but can lead to resistance

empiric therapy

10

therapy when a narrow spectrum is chosen

selective therapy

11

effect when a bacteriostatic and bactericidal antbiotic interact and help each other

synergy

12

effect when a bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotic are added together and slow each other down

antagonism

13

beta lactam antibiotics attack blank of prokaryotes

cell wall (peptidoglycan)

14

these play essential role in cell wall synthesis and are the target of penicillin

penicillin binding proteins

15

these bind to 30s or 50s ribosomes and prevent subsequent protein synthesis

aminoglycosides

16

these bind to 30s ribosome subunits and prevents tRNA from entering the acceptor sites on the ribosome

tetracyclines

17

these bind to 23s rRNA in ribosome and block translocation strep in protein synthesis

macrolides

18

these block action of peptidyl transferase and prevent peptide bond synthesis so it blocks the action of individual proteins

chloramphenicol

19

these target dna gyrase or topoisomerase

quinolones/levofloxacin

20

these target dna directly and also target healthy cells

metronidazole

21

these target dna dependent rna polymerase

rifampin

22

a target site for some antibiotics is to this because many bacteria synthesize it and is from PABA and glutamate

folic acid

23

resistance present before contact with antibiotics

intrinsic

24

resistance developed from exposure to antibiotics

acquired

25

intrinsic resistance is a result of blank

point mutations

26

acquired resistance is a result of blank

acquiring dna from different species

27

a superbug is resistant to blank

multiple antibiotics

28

major mechanisms of resistance

enzyme degradation, changing target, reduced permeability

29

new antibiotic that nothing could develop resistance to

teixobactin

30

teixobactin is most effective against blank bacteria

gram positive

31

smaller MIC means blank antiobiotic

better (takes less to work)

32

example of antibiotic resistance that is inactivated

beta lactam, aminoglycosides

33

example of antibiotic resistance that is actively effluxed

tetracycline

34

example of antibiotic resistance that has target modified

vancomycin