Modules 37-39 Flashcards Preview

Psych 10 > Modules 37-39 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Modules 37-39 Deck (85):
1

are adaptive responses that support survival.

Emotions

2

Emotional components

arousal, behavior, cognition

3

-- Theory: Arousal comes before emotion

James-Lange

4

James-Lange Theory Experience of emotion involves -- of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli

awareness

5

-- Theory: Arousal and emotion happen at the same time

Cannon-Bard

6

(Cannon and Bard): Emotion - arousing stimulus -- triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion

simultaneously

7

(Cannon and Bard) Human body responses run -- to the cognitive responses rather than causing them

parallel

8

Schachter and Singer Two-Factor Theory: -- + -- = Emotion

arousal + label

9

(Schachter and Singer) Emotions have two ingredients: Physical arousal and --.

cognitive appraisal

10

(Schachter and Singer) Arousal fuels emotion; cognition -- it.

channels

11

(Schachter and Singer) Emotional experience requires a -- of arousal.

conscious interpretation

12

(Schachter and Singer) Spillover arousal from one event to the next—influencing a response

spillover effect (riot after a sports event)

13

- Sometimes emotional response takes neural shortcut that bypasses the cortex and goes directly to amygdala.
- Some emotional responses involve no deliberate thinking.

Zajonc

14

- Brain processes much information without conscious
awareness, but mental functioning still takes place.
- Emotions arise when an event is appraised as harmless or dangerous.

Lazarus

15

The component of emotion is regulated by the autonomic nervous system

arousal

16

In a crisis, the -- automatically mobilizes the body for action.

fight-or-flight response

17

-- peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or well-learned tasks.

Performance

18

Like a crisis control center, the -- nervous system arouses the body in a crisis and calms it when danger passes.

autonomic

19

Different emotions have -- indicators.

subtle

20

Brain scans and EEGs reveal different brain -- for different emotions.

circuits

21

Depression and general negativity: -- frontal lobe activity

Right

22

Happiness, enthusiastic, and energized: -- frontal lobe activity

Left

23

Nonthreatening cues are -- easily detected than deceiving expressions

more

24

Firm handshake: --, expressive personality

Outgoing

25

gaze (prolonged eye contact) --

intimacy

26

Averted glance --

Submission

27

Stare --

Dominance

28

people can often detect -- cues and threats, and signs of status

nonverbal

29

Gestures, facial expressions, and voice tones are -- in written communication

absent

30

Women tend to read emotional cues more easily and to be more --

empathic

31

women express more -- with their faces

emotion

32

People attribute female emotionality to --

disposition

33

male emotionality to --

circumstance

34

Gesture meanings vary among cultures; but -- of emotion are generally the same.

outward signs

35

Musical expression of emotion -- culture.

crosses

36

T/F: Shared emotional categories do not reflect
shared cultural experiences.

true

37

Facial muscles speak a -- for some basic emotions;

universal language

38

interpreting faces in context is --.

adaptive

39

- Facial expressions can trigger emotional feelings and signal our body to respond accordingly.
- People also mimic others’ expressions, which help them empathize.

facial feedback effect

40

Tendency of behavior to influence our own and others’ thoughts, feelings, and actions

behavior feedback effect

41

unpleasant/negative + low arousal

sluggish, sad

42

unpleasant/negative + high arousal

fearful, angry

43

pleasant/positive + low arousal

relaxed

44

pleasant/positive + high arousal

elated, enthusiastic

45

isolated 10 basic emotions that include physiology and expressive behavior.

Izard

46

With threat or challenge, fear triggers flight but -- triggers fight—each at times an adaptive behavior.

anger

47

Smaller frustrations and blameless annoyances can also -- anger.

trigger

48

-- is one of the negative emotions linked to heart disease.

chronic hostility

49

Emotional -- may be temporarily calming, but in the long run it does not reduce anger.

catharsis

50

T/F: Expressing anger can make us angrier.

true

51

Controlled -- of feelings may resolve conflicts, and forgiveness may rid us of angry feelings.

assertions

52

T/F: Anger communicates strength and competence, motivates action, and expresses grief when wisely used.

true

53

People’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood

Feel-good, do-good phenomenon

54

- Self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life
- Used along with measures of objective well-being to evaluate people’s quality of life

subjective well-being

55

Scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive.

positive psychology

56

three pillars of positive psychology

positive well-being
positive character
communities/culture

57

Emotional ups and downs tend to -- out; moods typically rebound

balance

58

happiness is relative to our own experiences

adaptation-level phenomenon

59

happiness is relative to others' success

relative deprivation principle

60

Describes tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience

Adaptation-level phenomenon

61

Satisfaction comes from income rank, rather than income

Comparison phenomenon

62

Involves perception that one is worse off relative
to comparison group

relative deprivation

63

T/F: Wealth does correlate with well-being in some ways.

true

64

Increasing wealth matters less once -- are met.

basic needs

65

T/F: Economic growth in affluent countries provides no apparent morale or social well-being boost.

true

66

Happiness levels are product of -- interaction

nature- nurture

67

Twin studies: About -- percent of happiness rating differences heritable

50

68

T/F: Individual happiness level may influence national well-being

true

69

10 basic emotions
joy, guilt, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, contempt, feat, shame, and --

interest-excitement

70

sympathetic division

arousing

71

parasympathetic divisions.

calming

72

Sympathetic division: pupils

dilate

73

Sympathetic division: salivation

decreases

74

Sympathetic division: skin

perspires

75

Sympathetic division: respiration

increases

76

Sympathetic division: heart

accelerates

77

Sympathetic division: digestion

inhibits

78

Sympathetic division: adrenal glands

secrete stress hormones

79

Sympathetic division: immune system -- functioning

reduced

80

10 basic emotions:

joy, interest-excitement, sadness, shame, surprise, anger, contempt, disgust, fear, guilt

81

T/F: Even significant good events, such as sudden wealth, seldom increase happiness for long.

true

82

Anger is most often evoked by -- that we interpret as willful, unjustified, and avoidable

misdeeds

83

T/F: even significant good events, such as sudden wealth seldom increases happiness for long

true

84

Happiness: Personal History: emotions balance around level defined by --

experience

85

Happiness: Culture: -- in group value of traits

variation