Flashcards in Modules 37-39 Deck (85):
are adaptive responses that support survival.
arousal, behavior, cognition
-- Theory: Arousal comes before emotion
James-Lange Theory Experience of emotion involves -- of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
-- Theory: Arousal and emotion happen at the same time
(Cannon and Bard): Emotion - arousing stimulus -- triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion
(Cannon and Bard) Human body responses run -- to the cognitive responses rather than causing them
Schachter and Singer Two-Factor Theory: -- + -- = Emotion
arousal + label
(Schachter and Singer) Emotions have two ingredients: Physical arousal and --.
(Schachter and Singer) Arousal fuels emotion; cognition -- it.
(Schachter and Singer) Emotional experience requires a -- of arousal.
(Schachter and Singer) Spillover arousal from one event to the next—influencing a response
spillover effect (riot after a sports event)
- Sometimes emotional response takes neural shortcut that bypasses the cortex and goes directly to amygdala.
- Some emotional responses involve no deliberate thinking.
- Brain processes much information without conscious
awareness, but mental functioning still takes place.
- Emotions arise when an event is appraised as harmless or dangerous.
The component of emotion is regulated by the autonomic nervous system
In a crisis, the -- automatically mobilizes the body for action.
-- peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or well-learned tasks.
Like a crisis control center, the -- nervous system arouses the body in a crisis and calms it when danger passes.
Different emotions have -- indicators.
Brain scans and EEGs reveal different brain -- for different emotions.
Depression and general negativity: -- frontal lobe activity
Happiness, enthusiastic, and energized: -- frontal lobe activity
Nonthreatening cues are -- easily detected than deceiving expressions
Firm handshake: --, expressive personality
gaze (prolonged eye contact) --
Averted glance --
people can often detect -- cues and threats, and signs of status
Gestures, facial expressions, and voice tones are -- in written communication
Women tend to read emotional cues more easily and to be more --
women express more -- with their faces
People attribute female emotionality to --
male emotionality to --
Gesture meanings vary among cultures; but -- of emotion are generally the same.
Musical expression of emotion -- culture.
T/F: Shared emotional categories do not reflect
shared cultural experiences.
Facial muscles speak a -- for some basic emotions;
interpreting faces in context is --.
- Facial expressions can trigger emotional feelings and signal our body to respond accordingly.
- People also mimic others’ expressions, which help them empathize.
facial feedback effect
Tendency of behavior to influence our own and others’ thoughts, feelings, and actions
behavior feedback effect
unpleasant/negative + low arousal
unpleasant/negative + high arousal
pleasant/positive + low arousal
pleasant/positive + high arousal
isolated 10 basic emotions that include physiology and expressive behavior.
With threat or challenge, fear triggers flight but -- triggers fight—each at times an adaptive behavior.
Smaller frustrations and blameless annoyances can also -- anger.
-- is one of the negative emotions linked to heart disease.
Emotional -- may be temporarily calming, but in the long run it does not reduce anger.
T/F: Expressing anger can make us angrier.
Controlled -- of feelings may resolve conflicts, and forgiveness may rid us of angry feelings.
T/F: Anger communicates strength and competence, motivates action, and expresses grief when wisely used.
People’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
Feel-good, do-good phenomenon
- Self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life
- Used along with measures of objective well-being to evaluate people’s quality of life
Scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive.
three pillars of positive psychology
Emotional ups and downs tend to -- out; moods typically rebound
happiness is relative to our own experiences
happiness is relative to others' success
relative deprivation principle
Describes tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience
Satisfaction comes from income rank, rather than income
Involves perception that one is worse off relative
to comparison group
T/F: Wealth does correlate with well-being in some ways.
Increasing wealth matters less once -- are met.
T/F: Economic growth in affluent countries provides no apparent morale or social well-being boost.
Happiness levels are product of -- interaction
Twin studies: About -- percent of happiness rating differences heritable
T/F: Individual happiness level may influence national well-being
10 basic emotions
joy, guilt, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, contempt, feat, shame, and --
Sympathetic division: pupils
Sympathetic division: salivation
Sympathetic division: skin
Sympathetic division: respiration
Sympathetic division: heart
Sympathetic division: digestion
Sympathetic division: adrenal glands
secrete stress hormones
Sympathetic division: immune system -- functioning
10 basic emotions:
joy, interest-excitement, sadness, shame, surprise, anger, contempt, disgust, fear, guilt
T/F: Even significant good events, such as sudden wealth, seldom increase happiness for long.
Anger is most often evoked by -- that we interpret as willful, unjustified, and avoidable
T/F: even significant good events, such as sudden wealth seldom increases happiness for long
Happiness: Personal History: emotions balance around level defined by --