Module 21 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 21 Deck (31):
1

Learning is the process of acquiring through --, new information,
or behaviors

experience

2

two types of learning through association

classical conditioning and respondent behavior

3

certain events occur together

classical conditioning

4

Stimuli that are not control are associated and response is automatic

respondent behavior

5

learning through consequences

operant conditioning

6

Association between a response and consequences is learned

operant conditioning

7

learning through acquisition of mental information that guides behavior

cognitive learning

8

influenced by Pavlov; Theoretical goal of science of psychology is prediction and control of behavior

Watson

9

Psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes.

behaviorism

10

Psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists agree with

(1) but not (2)

11

demonstrated associative learning via salivary conditioning

Pavlov

12

Type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events

classical conditioning

13

In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning

neutral stimulus (NS)

14

In classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US) (such as food in the mouth)

unconditioned response (UR)

15

in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers an unconditioned response (UR)

unconditioned stimulus (US)

16

Initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response

acquisition

17

Diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS)

extinction

18

Reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response

spontaneous recovery

19

Tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses

generalization

20

Learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus (which predicts the US) and other irrelevant stimuli

discrimination

21

Pavlov demonstrated -- by attaching miniature vibrators to various parts of a dog’s body.

generalization

22

After -- salivation to stimulation of the thigh, he stimulated other areas.

conditioning

23

The closer a stimulated spot was to the dog’s thigh, the -- the conditioned response.

stronger

24

Consensus among psychologists that -- is basic learning form

classical conditioning

25

Pavlov demonstrated how a learning process can be studied --

objectively

26

Classical conditioning is a basic form of learning that applies to --

all species

27

Pavlov’s principles are used to influence -- and well-being.

human health

28

Addicts counseled to avoid -- that may trigger cravings

stimuli

29

-- particular taste with drug that influences immune responses may eventually lead to response from taste alone.

Pairing

30

Pavlov’s work provided a basis for Watson’s ideas that human emotions and behaviors, though biologically influenced, are mainly --.

conditioned responses

31

Watson applied classical conditioning principles in his studies of -- to demonstrate how specific fears might be conditioned

“Little Albert”