Flashcards in Module 21 Deck (31):
Learning is the process of acquiring through --, new information,
two types of learning through association
classical conditioning and respondent behavior
certain events occur together
Stimuli that are not control are associated and response is automatic
learning through consequences
Association between a response and consequences is learned
learning through acquisition of mental information that guides behavior
influenced by Pavlov; Theoretical goal of science of psychology is prediction and control of behavior
Psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes.
Psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists agree with
(1) but not (2)
demonstrated associative learning via salivary conditioning
Type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning
neutral stimulus (NS)
In classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US) (such as food in the mouth)
unconditioned response (UR)
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally—naturally and automatically—triggers an unconditioned response (UR)
unconditioned stimulus (US)
Initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response
Diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS)
Reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
Tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
Learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus (which predicts the US) and other irrelevant stimuli
Pavlov demonstrated -- by attaching miniature vibrators to various parts of a dog’s body.
After -- salivation to stimulation of the thigh, he stimulated other areas.
The closer a stimulated spot was to the dog’s thigh, the -- the conditioned response.
Consensus among psychologists that -- is basic learning form
Pavlov demonstrated how a learning process can be studied --
Classical conditioning is a basic form of learning that applies to --
Pavlov’s principles are used to influence -- and well-being.
Addicts counseled to avoid -- that may trigger cravings
-- particular taste with drug that influences immune responses may eventually lead to response from taste alone.
Pavlov’s work provided a basis for Watson’s ideas that human emotions and behaviors, though biologically influenced, are mainly --.