Module 18 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 18 Deck (26):
1

Sensation and perception are actually parts of --

one continuous process.

2

Bottom-up process by which the physical sensory system receives and represents stimuli at the very basic level of sensory receptors and works up

sensation

3

Top-down mental process of organizing and interpreting sensory input from experience and expectations

perception

4

-- is sensory analysis that begins at the entry level, with information flowing from the sensory receptors to the brain.

bottom-up processing

5

-- is information processing guided by high-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions by filtering information through our experience and expectations

top-down processing

6

all our senses receive -- often using specialized
receptor cells

sensory stimulation

7

all our senses transform that stimulation into --

neural impulses

8

all our senses deliver the neural info to --

our brain

9

conversion of one form of energy to another

transduction

10

Predicts how and when we will detect a faint stimulus
amid background noise

signal detection theory

11

individual absolute thresholds vary depending on the -- and also on our experience, expectations, motivation, and alertness

strength of the signal

12

Minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time

absolute threshold

13

Input, below the absolute threshold for conscious awareness

subliminal

14

Activating, often unconsciously, associations in our mind, thus setting us up to perceive, remember, or respond to objects or events in certain ways

priming

15

Minimum difference a person can detect between any two stimuli half the time; increases with stimulus size

difference threshold

16

For an average person to perceive a difference, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (not a constant amount); exact proportion varies, depending on the stimulus.

Weber's law

17

-- are those that are too weak to detect 50 percent of the time

subliminal stimuli

18

-- is a fact, such sensations are too fleeting to enable exploitation with subliminal messages.

subliminal sensation

19

-- may produce a fleeting, subtle, but not powerful, enduring effect on behavior

subliminal persuasion

20

-- Is diminished sensitivity as a consequence of
constant stimulation

sensory adaptation

21

sensory adaptation aids focus by --

reducing background chatter

22

T/F: sensory adaptation influences emotions

true

23

Mental tendencies and assumptions that affect (top -
down) what we hear, taste, feel, and see

perceptual set

24

What determines our perceptual set? -- organize and interpret unfamiliar
information through experience.

Schemas

25

Preexisting schemas influence -- of ambiguous sensation interpretation, including gender stereotypes.

top-down processing

26

A given stimulus may trigger -different perceptions because of the --

immediate context