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Flashcards in Module 1 Deck (62):
1

Fourth century B.C.E. -- used observation and questioning to understand the body-psyche relationship

Aristotle

2

What event defined the start of scientific psychology?

began in Germany when Wundt opened the first psychology lab

3

defined psychology as "science of mental life"

Wundt

4

Wundt added two key elements to enhance the scientific nature of psychology

carefully measured observations and experiments

5

mentored by Wundt

Titchener

6

Encouraged
introspection, reporting on sensations and other elements of experience in reaction to stimuli

Titchener

7

Why did introspection fail as a method for understanding how the mind works?

variable self reports

8

1st psychologist

William James

9

assemble the mind’s structure from simple elements by looking at the evolved functions of thoughts and feelings

functionalism

10

form of psychology that used introspection to define the mind's makeup

structuralism

11

-- focused on how mental processes enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish

functionalism

12

James believed that emotions were --

bottom up

13

functionalism =

William James

14

1st APA female president

Mary Whiton Calkins

15

studied with James but denied PhD

Calkins

16

second APA female president and wrote The Animal Mind

Maragret Floy Washburn

17

authored Principles of Psychology

James

18

studied with Michener but barred from his experimental psychology organization

Washburn

19

first woman to receive psychology PhD

Washburn

20

Defined psychology as “scientific study of observable
behavior” without reference to mental processes

behaviorism

21

psychologists of behaviorism

Watson, Skinner, and Rayner

22

two of the major forces in psychology well into the 1960s

behaviorism and Freudian psychology

23

classical conditioning

Watson

24

operant conditioning

Skinner

25

behaviorists Watson and Skinner dismissed --

introspection

26

Watson and Rayner conducted famous -- experiments which showed that fear could be learned

"Little Albert"

27

Emphasized ways unconscious thought processes and emotional responses to childhood experiences affect later behavior

Freudian psychology

28

- Revived interest in study of mental processes
- Focused on ways current environments can nurture or limit growth potential and importance of having need for love and acceptance satisfied

humanistic psychology

29

who led humanistic psychology

Rogers and Maslow

30

The -- occurred in 1960 and focus returned to interest in mental processes.

cognitive revolution

31

-- scientifically explored ways in which information is perceived, processed, and remembered.

Cognitive psychology

32

The interdisciplinary field of -- ties the science of mind (cognitive psychology) and the science of the brain (neuroscience) and focuses on brain activity underlying mental activity

cognitive neuroscience

33

How did the cognitive revolution affect the field of psychology? It recaptured the field’s early interest in -- and made them legitimate topics for scientific study.

mental processes

34

psychology =

science of behavior and mental processes

35

The field of psychology is growing and --

globalizing

36

Character and intelligence inherited; some ideas inborn

Plato (nature)

37

Some ideas are intuitive

Descartes (nature)

38

Some traits, behaviors, and instincts are part of species; natural selection

Darwin (nature)

39

content of mind comes through senses

Aristotle (nurture)

40

mind is a blank slate

Locke (nurture)

41

the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.

natural selection

42

Focus on how humans are alike because of common biology and evolutionary history

evolutionary psychology

43

focus on differences related to differing genes and environments

behavior genetics

44

Focus on ways culture shapes behavior, but same underlying processes are universal

cross-cultural psychology

45

Gender psychology: Focus on differences; males and females are overwhelmingly --

similar

46

even when specific attitudes and behaviors vary by gender or across cultures, as they often do, the underlying causes are much the--

same

47

Uses scientific methods to investigate building of good life that engages skill-building and a meaningful life that extends beyond self

positive psychology

48

positive psychologists such as -- explores human flourishing

Seligman

49

psychology's three main levels of analysis

biological, psychological, socio-cultural

50

psychology is a -- scientific discipline (Cacloppo)

hub

51

Common quest : Describing and explaining -- and the mind underlying it

behavior

52

How the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences

neuroscience

53

How the natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes

evolutionary

54

How our genes and our environment influence our individual differences

behavior genetics

55

How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts

psychodynamic

56

how we learn observable responses

behavioral

57

how we encode, process, store, and retrieve info

cognitive

58

how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures

socio-cultural

59

Testing boosts -- of material

retention

60

Actively processing material and retrieving material helps master it

testing effect

61

-- rehearsal, interspaced with other subjects, is more efficient than cramming

Spaced

62

SQ3R study method

Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review