Modules 40-41 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Modules 40-41 Deck (50):
1

process by which we perceive and respond to certain events that we appraise as threatening or challenging

stress (reaction)

2

things that we appraise as threatening or challenging; pushes our buttons

stressors (stimulus)

3

a traumatic event is -- stress

extreme

4

serving in active duty combat in a war zone is -- stress

prolonged

5

extreme and prolonged stress can cause -- including increasing the risk of developing illnesses and disorders

psychological and physical harm

6

Unpleasant, large-scale events

catastrophes

7

Personal events; life transitions

significant life changes

8

day-to-day challenges (LA traffic)

daily hassles

9

termed proposed by Cannon to describe the stress response

fight-or-flight system

10

fight-or-flight system involves the -- nervous system

autonomic

11

fight, flight, or -- including individuals who don't make a decision, stop moving toward or away from a threat

freeze

12

Selye proposed this three-phase system = --describes the entire stress response over time

general adaptation syndrome (GAS) (alarm, resistance, exhaustion)

13

Facing stress, women may have a -- response

tend-and-befriend

14

Facing stress, men are more likely to --, turn to substances such as alcohol or become irritable

withdraw

15

a subfield of psychology that provides psychology’s contribution to behavioral medicine

health psychology

16

study mind-body interactions, including stress-related physical illnesses, such as hypertension and some headaches.

Psychoneuroimmunologists

17

the field of study of these mind-body interactions and researchers in this area have found that emotions and stress interact to negatively impact the immune system, resulting in increased susceptibility to developing an illness

Psychneuroimmunology

18

type of white blood cell; part of the humoral immunity component of the immune system; secrete antibodies

B lymphocytes

19

type of white blood cell; cell-mediated immunity

T lymphocytes

20

large white blood cell found in tissue or mobile at sites of infection

macrophages

21

type of white blood cell (lymphocyte) that is able to bind to certain tumor cells and virus-infected cells without stimulation of antigens

NK cells

22

NK works by inserting granules containing -- into infected cells

perforin

23

Many things impact the immune system including: age, --, genes, body temperature, and nutrition

stress

24

When the immune system malfunctions, it either responds too strongly or --

under-responds

25

If the immune system reacts -- , this can result in self-attacking diseases, or autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and lupus.

too intensely

26

When the immune system isn’t functioning strongly enough, individuals are at increased risk for --.

bacterial infections, viruses, and cancer

27

is the primary stress hormone released and can result in increased body fat, particularly in the abdominal area

cortisol

28

increased release of cortisol (and other secondary stress hormones) can result in a -- immune system

weakened

29

Stress does not make people sick --, but rather negatively impacts the immune system’s ability to function, thereby increasing risk for developing an illness

directly

30

-- individuals are at a higher risk for heart attack and heart disease, particularly men

Type A

31

Friedman and Rosenman’s term for competitive, hard - driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger - prone people

Type A

32

Friedman and Rosenman’s term for easy going, relaxed people

Type B

33

Term for people who suppress negative emotion to avoid social disapproval

Type D

34

T/F: Pessimists are more likely than optimists to develop heart disease

true

35

-- increases risk of death, especially by cardiovascular disease;

Depression

36

the American Heart Association recommends that any person who undergoes -- should be screened for depression.

cardiac surgery

37

Chronic stress triggers persistent -- which increases risk of heart disease and depression

inflammation

38

Reducing stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods

coping

39

Problem-focused coping: Attempting to reduce stress -- by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor

directly

40

Emotion-focused coping: Attempting to reduce stress by -- a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to our stress reaction

avoiding or ignoring

41

When we feel a perceived loss of control, our bodies release --, blood pressure increases, and immune system response becomes less effective

more stress hormones (cortisol)

42

Those who have an external locus of control believe that chance or outside forces control their fate (often associated with --)

depression

43

Those who have an internal locus of control believe they control their own destiny (when too high, often associated with --)

anxiety

44

ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards

self-control

45

-- temporarily depletes the mental energy needed for self-control on other tasks.

Exercising willpower

46

-- requires attention and energy, but it predicts good adjustment, better grades, and social success

self-control

47

Learned -- involves a loss of control

helplessness

48

A person experiences uncontrollable negative events, develops a perceived lack of control, and then even when given the opportunity to make a positive change, these individuals will display --

helpless behavior

49

This construct was developed by Seligman and informed by experiments with dogs being shocked and initially being given no way to escape; then later when given the chance to get away from the shocks, the dogs no longer tried to do so

learned helplessness

50

--, relaxation, exercise; faith/religion/spirituality are ways to reduce stress

meditation