Module 44-45 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 44-45 Deck (37):
1

Is an unjustified negative
attitude toward some group and its members

prejudice

2

Explicit prejudice in North America has -- over time.

decreased

3

social roots of prejudice

social inequalities, just-world phenomenon, and stereotypes

4

Good is rewarded and evil is punished.

just-world phenomenon

5

stereotypes -- inequalities

rationalize

6

-- prepares people to identify with a group.

Evolution

7

Social definition of who we are—and are not

ingroup

8

favoring of our own group

ingroup bias

9

negative attitude

prejudice

10

negative behavior

discrimination

11

Proposes that when things go wrong, finding someone to blame can provide an outlet for anger

scapegoat theory

12

- Evidence from animal studies and twin studies; genetic Y chromosome genetic marker; MAOA gene
- Alcohol associated with aggressive responses to frustration

genetic influence of aggression

13

Neural systems facilitate or inhibit -- when provoked

aggression

14

Aggression more likely to occur with -- lobe damage

frontal

15

Testosterone linked with irritability, assertiveness, impulsiveness, and low tolerance for frustration; alcohol effect

biochemical influence of aggression

16

Even people who deny racial prejudice may carry negative associations

implicit prejudice

17

Frustration creates
anger, which can spark aggression

frustration-aggression principle

18

Anger triggers include hot temperatures, physical pain, personal insults, foul odors, cigarette smoke, ,

crowding

19

Media portrayals of violence provide -- that children learn to follow.

social scripts

20

Viewing -- contributes to greater aggression toward women.

sexual violence

21

T/F: Playing violent video games can increase aggressive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors in some children.

true

22

psychology of attraction
• proximity (mere exposure effect)
• Physical attractiveness

Similarity of attitudes and interests

23

Passionate love: Two-factor theory of --

emotion

24

Emotions have two ingredients—.

physical arousal and cognitive appraisal

25

Sexual desire + -- = the passion of romantic love

a growing attachment

26

T/F: Passionate love seldom endures

true

27

Passion-fed hormones (testosterone) give way to oxytocin that supports feelings of trust, calmness, and bonding

companionate love

28

in companionate love, attraction and sexual desire endure, without -- of early-stage

obsession

29

-- is important key to satisfying and enduring relationship

Equity

30

-- deepens intimacy

Self-disclosure

31

is an unselfish concern for the welfare of others.

altruism

32

Tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to
give aid if other bystanders are present

bystander effect

33

bystander effect occurs when there is a -- of responsibility

diffusion

34

-- encourage generosity and enable group living.

Positive social norms

35

Social expectation that prescribes how we should behave

socialization norm

36

Expectation that people will respond favorably to each other by returning benefits for benefit (cost-benefit analysis; utilitarianism; social exchange theory)

reciprocity norm

37

Expectation that people should help those who depend on them

social-responsibility norm