Flashcards in Module 44-45 Deck (37):
Is an unjustified negative
attitude toward some group and its members
Explicit prejudice in North America has -- over time.
social roots of prejudice
social inequalities, just-world phenomenon, and stereotypes
Good is rewarded and evil is punished.
stereotypes -- inequalities
-- prepares people to identify with a group.
Social definition of who we are—and are not
favoring of our own group
Proposes that when things go wrong, finding someone to blame can provide an outlet for anger
- Evidence from animal studies and twin studies; genetic Y chromosome genetic marker; MAOA gene
- Alcohol associated with aggressive responses to frustration
genetic influence of aggression
Neural systems facilitate or inhibit -- when provoked
Aggression more likely to occur with -- lobe damage
Testosterone linked with irritability, assertiveness, impulsiveness, and low tolerance for frustration; alcohol effect
biochemical influence of aggression
Even people who deny racial prejudice may carry negative associations
anger, which can spark aggression
Anger triggers include hot temperatures, physical pain, personal insults, foul odors, cigarette smoke, ,
Media portrayals of violence provide -- that children learn to follow.
Viewing -- contributes to greater aggression toward women.
T/F: Playing violent video games can increase aggressive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors in some children.
psychology of attraction
• proximity (mere exposure effect)
• Physical attractiveness
Similarity of attitudes and interests
Passionate love: Two-factor theory of --
Emotions have two ingredients—.
physical arousal and cognitive appraisal
Sexual desire + -- = the passion of romantic love
a growing attachment
T/F: Passionate love seldom endures
Passion-fed hormones (testosterone) give way to oxytocin that supports feelings of trust, calmness, and bonding
in companionate love, attraction and sexual desire endure, without -- of early-stage
-- is important key to satisfying and enduring relationship
-- deepens intimacy
is an unselfish concern for the welfare of others.
Tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to
give aid if other bystanders are present
bystander effect occurs when there is a -- of responsibility
-- encourage generosity and enable group living.
Positive social norms
Social expectation that prescribes how we should behave
Expectation that people will respond favorably to each other by returning benefits for benefit (cost-benefit analysis; utilitarianism; social exchange theory)