Module 49-50 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 49-50 Deck (66):
1

Are marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior

psychological disorders

2

psychological disorders interfere with --

function

3

Drilling skull holes may have been an attempt to release evil spirits and cure those with mental disorders.

trephination

4

Search for physical cause of mental disorders and for curative treatments

medical model

5

in medical model, mental illness diagnosed on basis of -- and treated through therapy, including treatment

symptoms

6

General approach positing that biological, psychological, and social- cultural factors all play a significant role in human functioning in the context of disease or illness

biopsychosocial approach

7

biopsychosocial approach, -- also informs our understanding of disorders

epigenetics

8

things happen to us: -- locus of control

external

9

we are agents of change: -- locus of control

internal

10

DSM-5 create diagnostic -- each containing a check-list of symptoms

categories

11

more than one or more additional disorders

comorbidity

12

things that go together (depression and anxiety)

kissing cousins

13

Describes disorders and estimates their occurrence

DSM-5

14

changes in the DSM-5

label changes, new/altered diagnoses, new categories

15

DSM-5 benefits

communication and research

16

Are people with psychological disorder dangerous?

no

17

Most people with disorders are -- and are more likely to be victims than attackers

nonviolent

18

Psychological disorder rates vary, depending on the -- and place of the survey.

time

19

-- is a risk factor for psychological disorders.

Poverty

20

are marked by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.

Anxiety disorders

21

Person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal

generalized anxiety disorder

22

Person experiences sudden episodes of intense dread and often lives in fear of when the next attack might strike

panic disorder

23

Person experiences a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation

phobias

24

Characterized by persistent and repetitive thoughts
(obsessions), actions (compulsions), or both

obsessive-compulsive disorder

25

OCD occurs when obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors interfere with everyday life and cause --

distress

26

OCD is more common among

teens and young adults

27

-- is a driver of development and consequence of psychological disorder

SES

28

low SES tend to have fewer --

resources

29

T/F: high SES cannot lead to psychological disorder

false

30

worry disorder

generalized anxiety disorder

31

1 out of every -- Americans will experience 1 major depression episode

4

32

depression episode is -- weeks or longer

2

33

OCD can be -- for a long time, and people usually don't have insight

hidden

34

majority of the people are -- to psychological disorders

resilient

35

T/F: one risk factor will lead to a disorder

false

36

panic disorder is more -- than GAD but more intense

discrete or episodic

37

unwanted, intrusive, repetitive thoughts (judged to be unacceptable)

obsessions

38

repetitive behaviors that is designed to neutralize the threat of obsession

compulsions

39

T/F: compulsions can be internal

true

40

Is disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feeling, and/or insomnia lingering for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience

post traumatic stress disorder

41

PTSD has a -- risk for women

higher (more prone to seek help)

42

T/F: PTSD can occur by witnessing or hearing the event

true

43

research helps explain how panic-prone people associate anxiety with certain cues.

classical conditioning

44

research demonstrates how a fearful event can later become a fear of similar events.

stimulus generalization

45

can help maintain a developed and generalized phobia.

reinforcement (operant conditioning)

46

symptoms of PTSD, -- things associated with the drama

avoiding

47

T/F: the majority of people with PTSD are military veterans

false

48

primary factor in maintaining anxiety

negative reinforcement

49

Role of cognition in PTSD: -- others can contribute to development of some fears

observing

50

Role of cognition in PTSD: interpretations and expectations shape --

reactions

51

symptoms of anxiety

hyperviligance

52

Role of biology in PTSD: Genetic-- to anxiety, OCD, and
PTSD

predisposition

53

Role of biology in PTSD: Trauma linked to new fear pathways, hyperactive danger detection, impulse control and habitual behavior areas of --

brain

54

Role of biology in PTSD: Biological preparedness to fear threats-easily conditioned and difficult to extinguish

natural selection

55

trauma -- the brain

changes

56

GAD

3.1%

57

social anxiety disorder

6.8%

58

phobia of specific object or situation

8.7%

59

depressive disorders or bipolar disorder

9.5%

60

OCD

1%

61

schizophrenia

1.1%

62

PTSD

3.5%

63

ADHD

4.1%

64

DSM-5 Criticism: Antisocial personality disorder and generalized anxiety disorder did poorly on --

field trials

65

DSM-5 contributes to -- of everyday life

pathologizing

66

DSM-5 labels are society's --

value judgments