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Flashcards in Extra Deck (184):
1

person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

temperament

2

focuses on our ability to understand our own and others' mental states (those with ASD struggle with this ability)

Theory of the Mind

3

normal process by which we form emotional ties with important others.

attachment

4

occurs only in certain animals that have a critical period very early in their development during which they must form their attachments and they do so in an inflexible manner

imprinting

5

coercive parenting

authoritarian

6

unrestraining parenting

permissive

7

confrontive parenting

authoritative

8

retina contains 3 different -- which when stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color

color receptors

9

sodium essential to physiological process

salty

10

proteins

umami

11

energy source

sweet

12

potential toxic acid

sour

13

potential poison

bitter

14

brain interpreted loudness from -- of activated hair cells

number

15

place theory: we hear different pitches because different sound waves trigger activity of different places along --

cochlea's basilar membrane

16

sound strikes one ear sooner and more intensely than other which helps with deterring the -- of sound

location

17

system for sensing position and movement of individual body parts

kinesthesia

18

sense of body movement and position (balance)

vestibular sense

19

associates 2 stimulus and thus anticipates events

classical conditioning

20

associates response (our behavior) and its consequence

operant conditioning

21

neutral stimulus are events the dog could see and hear but not -- with food

associate

22

fMRI

spatially precise

23

MRI

spatially precise

24

PET

spatially precise

25

EEG

temporally precise

26

somatosensory cortex is in the -- lobe

parietal

27

primary motor cortex is in the -- lobe

frontal

28

3 main levels of analysis

biology, psychology, social-cultural

29

pyschodynamic emphasized by --

Freud

30

T/F: genes are static

false, genes can change due to stress

31

What are three ways we forget?

encoding failure, storage decay, and retrieval failure

32

unattended info never entered our memory system

encoding failure

33

info fades from our memory

storage decay

34

we cannot access stored info accurately, sometimes due to interference or motivated forgetting

retrieval failure

35

When we are tested immediately after viewing a list of words, we tend to recall the first and last items best, which is known as the --

serial position

36

activation (often without our awareness) of associations

priming

37

example of -- is like seeing a gun might temporaily predispose someone to interpret an ambiguous face as threatening or to recall a boss as nasty

priming

38

Which brain area responds to stress hormones by helping to create stronger memories?

amygdala

39

The neural basis for learning and memory, found at the synapses in the brain's memory-circuit connections, results from brief, rapid stimulation is called

long-term potentiation

40

implicit memories (non declarative) without conscious recall is --

automatic

41

explicit declarative memories with conscious recall is --

effortful

42

automatic memory processing occurs in

cerebellum and basal ganglia

43

effortful memory processing occurs in

hippocampus and frontal lobes

44

space, time, frequency (where you ate dinner yesterday) is a -- memory process

automatic

45

T/F: motor and cognitive skills like riding a bike is an automatic memory processing

true

46

classical conditioning such as reaction in dentist's office is a -- memory process

automatic

47

T/F: facts and general knowledge is a form of effortful memory processing

true

48

personally experienced events (family holidays) is an -- memory process

effortful

49

T/F: Remembering how to tie shoes but not recall a conversation after a brain damage --> our implicit memories are processed by more ancient brain areas which apparently escape damage during brain accident.

true

50

Making material personally meaningful involves processing at a deep level, because you are processing -- based on the meaning of words

semantically

51

deep processing leads to -- retention

greater

52

At which of Atkinson-Shiffrin's three memory stages would iconic and echoic memory occur?

sensory memory

53

Multiple choice questions test our --

recognition

54

Fill-in-the-blanks test our --

recall

55

It would be better to test your memory with -- rather than recognition

recall

56

What two new concepts update the classic Atkinson-Shiffren's three stage info processing model: 1. We form some memories through -- without our awareness. The Atkinson-Shiffren model only focused on conscious memories

automatic processing

57

What two new concepts update the classic Atkinson-Shiffren's three stage info processing model: 2. The newer concept of a -- emphasizes the active processing that we now know takes place in Atkinson-Shiffren's short-term memory stage

working memory

58

What are the two basic functions of working memory?

active processing of incoming visual-spatial and auditory info; focusing our spotlight of attention

59

Knowing the way from your bed to the bathroom in the dark.

Latent learning

60

Your little brother getting in a fight after watching a violent action movie.

Observational learning

61

Salivating when you smell brownies in an oven.

Classical conditioning

62

Disliking the taste of chili after becoming violently sick a few hours after eating chili

Biological predisposition

63

Your dog racing to greet you on your arrival home

Operant conditioning

64

Jason's parents and older friends all smoke, but they advise him not to. Juan's parents and friends don't smoke but they say nothing to deter him from doing so. Who is more likely to smoke?

Jason because observational learning studies suggest that children tend to do as others do and say what they say

65

give a desired stimulus

positive reinforcement

66

take away a desired stimulus

negative punishment

67

give an undesired stimulus

positive punishment

68

take away an undesired stimulus

negative reinforcement

69

Telemarketers are reinforced by which schedule?

variable ratio (varying number of calls)

70

People checking the oven to see if the cookies are done are on which schedule?

fixed interval

71

Airline frequent-flyer programs that offer a free flight after every 25,000 miles of travel are using which reinforcement schedule?

fixed ratio

72

Baby stops crying once parents grant her wish. baby is showing -- reinforcement

negative

73

Parents -- reinforce a baby's crying by letting her sleep with them

positively

74

In Watson and Rayner's experiments "Little Albert" learned to fear a white rat after repeatedly experiencing a loud noise as the rat was presented. What was the unconditioned stimulus?

loud noise

75

In Watson and Rayner's experiments "Little Albert" learned to fear a white rat after repeatedly experiencing a loud noise as the rat was presented. What was the unconditioned response?

fear response to the noise

76

In Watson and Rayner's experiments "Little Albert" learned to fear a white rat after repeatedly experiencing a loud noise as the rat was presented. What was the neutral stimulus?

rat before it was paired with the noise

77

In Watson and Rayner's experiments "Little Albert" learned to fear a white rat after repeatedly experiencing a loud noise as the rat was presented. What was the conditioned stimulus?

rate after pairing

78

In Watson and Rayner's experiments "Little Albert" learned to fear a white rat after repeatedly experiencing a loud noise as the rat was presented. What was the conditioned response?

fear of rat

79

If viewing an attractive nude (a US) elicits sexual arousal (UR), then pairing the US with a new stimulus (violence) could turn the violence into a -- that also becomes sexually arousing, a conditioned response

conditioned stimulus

80

US --> UR
US + NS --> UR
neutral stimulus becomes --

conditioned stimulus

81

If the aroma of baking a cake sets your mouth watering, what is the US? CS? CR?

US = cake
CS = associated aroma
CR = mouth watering to aroma

82

An experimenter sounds a tone just before delivering an air puff to your blinking eye. After several repetitions, you blink to tone alone. What is NS? US? UR? CS? CR

NS = tone (before conditioning)
US = air puff
UR = blink to air puff
CS = tone (after conditioning)
CS = blink to tone

83

Habits form when we repeat behaviors in a given context and as a result learn -- often without our awareness

associations

84

source of vision

light waves striking the eye

85

receptors for vision

rods and cones in retina

86

source of hearing

sound waves striking the outer ear

87

sound receptors

cochlear hair cells in inner ear

88

source of touch

pressure, warmth, cold on skin

89

touch receptors

skin receptors detect pressure, warmth, cold, and pain

90

source of taste

chemical molecules in the mouth

91

taste receptors

basic tongue receptors

92

source of smell

chemical molecules breathed in through the nose

93

smell receptors

millions of receptors at top of nasal cavity

94

source of body position (kinesthesia)

any change in position of a body part, interacting with vision

95

body position (kinesthesia) receptors

kinesthetic sensors in joints, tendons, and muscles

96

source of body movement (vestibular sense)

movement of fluids in the inner ear caused by head/body movement

97

body movement (vestibular sense) receptors

hairlike receptors in the semicircular canals and vestibular sacs

98

We have -- basic touch sense

four

99

We have -- basic taste sensations

five

100

T/F: we have no basic smell receptors

true

101

Different combinations of odor receptors send messages to the -- enabling us to recognize some 10,000 different smells

brain

102

sensory receptors that enable the perception of pain in response to potentially harmful stimuli

nociceptors

103

gate-control theory states that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks -- or allows them to pass on to the brain

pain signals

104

pate is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up the -- and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain

small nerve fibers

105

T/F: If a hair cell loses sensitivity to soft sounds, it may still respond to loud sounds

true

106

harder-tohear sounds are amplified more than loud sounds

compressed sound

107

The longer the sound waves are, the -- their frequency is and the -- their pitch

lower; lower

108

The outer ear collects sounds waves, which are translated into -- by the middle ear and turned into fluid waves in the inner ear

mechanical waves

109

The -- translates the energy into electrical waves and sends them to the brain (thalamus then auditory cortex), which perceives and interprets the sound

auditory nerve

110

The outer ear funnels sound waves to the --

ear drum

111

The bones of the middle ear amplify and relay the eardrum's vibrations through the oval window and into the fluid-filled --

cochlea

112

opponent-process cells in the -- for red-green, yellow-blue, and white-black

retina

113

The Young-Helmoltz and opponent-process theories are -- and outline the two stages of color vision

complementary

114

generativity vs stagnation

middle adulthood

115

integrity vs despair

late adulthood

116

initiative vs guilt

preschool

117

intimacy vs isolation

young adulthood

118

identity vs role confusion

adolescence

119

competence vs inferiority

elementary school

120

trust vs mistrust

infancy

121

autonomy vs shame and doubt

toddlerhood

122

object permanence

sensorimotor

123

pretend play

preoperational

124

conservation

concrete operational

125

abstract logic

formal operational

126

ability to reverse math operations

concrete operational

127

having difficulty taking another's point of view (as when blocking someone's view of the TV)

preoperational

128

Developmental researchers who emphasize learning and experience are supporting --

continuity

129

those who emphasize biological maturation are supporting --

stages

130

-- theory is supported by Piaget (cognitive development), Kolhberg (moral development), and Erikson (psychosocial development) but challenged by findings that change is more gradual and less culturally universal than these theorists suggested

stage

131

some traits such as temperamne do exhibit remarkable -- across many years but we do change in other ways such as in our social attitudes

stability

132

an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brain's surface (these waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp)

electroencephalogram (EEG)

133

visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

PET scan

134

technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computerized images of soft tissue; shows brain anatomy

MRI scan

135

-- nervous system controls the more autonomous (self-regulating) internal functions

autonomic

136

ANS's -- arouses and expends energy

sympathetic

137

ANS's -- calms and conserves energy, allowing routine maintenance

parasympathetic

138

-- carry info from sensory receptors to brain

sensory afferent neurons

139

-- carry info from brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands

motor efferent neurons

140

more verbal hemisphere

left

141

hemisphere that excels in visual perception and recognition of emotion

right

142

-- % are left handed

10

143

dual processing: mind processes info on two separate tracks one for -- and one for --

explicit (conscious sequential) and implicit (unconscious parallel)

144

T/F: consciousness sometimes arrives late to the decision-making party

true

145

T/F: unconscious parallel processing is faster than sequential conscious processing

true

146

Erikson's idea that -- is formed in infancy by our experiences with responsive caregivers

basic trust

147

The brain's -- mature during adolescence

frontal lobe

148

the tendency to choose similar others

selection effect

149

age of middle adulthood

40-65

150

T/F: as years pass, recall begins to decline especially for meaningless info but recognition memory remains strong

true

151

T/F: surveys show that life satisfaction is unrelated to age

true

152

-- is the difference we can discern between two stimuli 50% of the time

difference threshold = just noticeable threshold

153

minimum stimulation necessary of us to be consciously aware of it 50% of the time

absolute threshold

154

to recognize an object we must perceive it or see it as a -- distinct from its surroundings (the ground)

figure

155

people given glasses that shift the world slightly to the left or right experience

perceptual adaptation

156

sound waves differ in amplitude

loudness

157

sound waves differ in frequency

pitch

158

explains how we hear high-pitched sound

place theory

159

explains how we hear low-pitched sound

frequency theory

160

Through -- we sense the position and movement of our body parts

kinesthesia

161

we monitor our head's (and thus our body's) position and movement and maintain our balance

vestibular sense

162

we associate two events we do not control and respond automatically

respondent behavior

163

we learn that certain events occur together

associate learning

164

we learn to associate two or more stimuli

classical conditioning

165

Pavlov's work on classical conditioning lead the foundation for -- the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes

behaviorism

166

A CS is a previously NS that after association with a -- comes to trigger a CR

unconditioned stimulus

167

associating NS with US so that the NS begins triggering a CR

acquisition

168

-- are satisfying because we have learned to associate them with more basic rewards

conditioned or secondary reinforcers

169

3 processing stages in Atkinson-Shiffren's model

sensory, short-term, long-term

170

short-term capacity is about -- but this info disappears from memory quickly without rehearsal

7 +/- 2

171

working memory capacity varies with

age, intelligence, etc

172

effective effortful processing include

chunking, mneomincs, hierarchies, and distributed practice

173

in -- we encode words based on their structure or appearance

shallow processing

174

we easily remember material that is personally meaningful

self-reference effect

175

very stressful events can trigger -- memories

flashbulb

176

appears to be the neural basis of learning

long-term potentiation

177

In LTP, neurons become more efficient at releasing and sensing the presence of -- and more connections develop between neurons

neurotransmitters

178

the idea that cues and contexts specific to a particular memory will be most effective in helping us recall it

specificity principle

179

returning to the same physical context or emotional state in which we formed a memory can help us retrieve it

mood congruency

180

inability to form new memories

anterograde amnesia

181

inability to retrieve old memories

retrograde amnesia

182

people have formed false memories, incorporating misleading details, after receiving wrong info after an event or by repeatedly imagining and rehearsing something that never happened

misinformation effect

183

interferes with recall of new info

proactive

184

new learning disrupts old info

retroactive