Flashcards in Module 19 Deck (47):
Distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next.
Dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, and so forth.
Amount of energy in a light wave or sound wave, which influences what we perceive as brightness or loudness. It is determined by the wave’s amplitude (height).
What is seen as light is only a thin slice of the broad spectrum of --.
After entering the eye and being focused by a lens, light energy particles strike the eye’s inner surface, --.
The perceived hue in a light depends on its --
brightness depends on
-- the number of complete wavelengths that can pass a point in a given time, depends on the length of the wave.
Waves also vary in --, the height from peak to trough (top to bottom).
Wave amplitude determines the brightness of colors and also the -- of sounds
light entering the eye triggers -- in rods and cones at the back of the retina
chemical reaction at the back of the retina activates --
bipolar cells then activate -- whose combined axons form the optic nerve
-- transmits info (via thalamus) to the brain
cones and rods provide a special --
cones are sensitive to -- and --
detail and color
rods are sensitive to --
How does the brain turn light stimuli into useful information about the world?
- Collection and analysis of sensory information
- Linkage of optic nerve with neurons in thalamus
color processing occurs in --
Retina’s red, green, and blue cones respond in varying degrees to --, as the Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory suggested
different color stimuli
Cones’ responses are then processed by --, as Hering’s theory proposed
opponent- process cells
Involves nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific feature of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement
Hubel and Wiesel: Showed brain’s computing system -- and then -- visual images
deconstructs then reassembles
Hubel and Wiesel: Found specialized -- receive information from ganglions cells and pass to supercell clusters
occipital lobe neuron cells
brain delegates the work of processing motion, form, depth, and -- to different areas.
After taking a scene apart, the brain integrates these subdimensions into the --
-- propose principles used to organize sensations into perception.
People tend to organize pieces of information into an organized whole or--
Organization of visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings
Perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into meaningful groups
Human minds use these grouping strategies to see patterns and objects.
proximity, closure, continuity
Represents ability to see objects in three dimensions, although the images that strike the retina are two dimensional
depth perception allows us to judge --
depth perception is present, at least in part, at -- in humans and other animals
-- test of early 3D perception (Gibson and Walk)
The Visual Cliff
most infants -- to crawl across the visual cliff
crawling, no matter when it begins, seems to -- an infant's fear of heights
Two eyes help perception of depth
Binocular cue for perceiving depth
By comparing images from the two eyes, the brain calculates --
used by 3D film makers
Depth cue, such as interposition or linear perspective,
available to either eye alone
perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color even if changing -- alters the wavelengths reflected by the object
Perception of objects as having constant size even when distance from them varies
Effect of sensory restriction on infant cats, monkeys, and humans suggests there is a critical period for normal --
sensory and perceptual development
Without --, normal connections do not develop.