Module 19 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 19 Deck (47):
1

Distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next.

wavelength

2

Dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, and so forth.

hue

3

Amount of energy in a light wave or sound wave, which influences what we perceive as brightness or loudness. It is determined by the wave’s amplitude (height).

intensity

4

What is seen as light is only a thin slice of the broad spectrum of --.

electromagnetic energy

5

After entering the eye and being focused by a lens, light energy particles strike the eye’s inner surface, --.

the retina

6

The perceived hue in a light depends on its --

wavelength

7

brightness depends on

intensity

8

-- the number of complete wavelengths that can pass a point in a given time, depends on the length of the wave.

frequency

9

Waves also vary in --, the height from peak to trough (top to bottom).

amplitude

10

Wave amplitude determines the brightness of colors and also the -- of sounds

loudness

11

light entering the eye triggers -- in rods and cones at the back of the retina

chemical reaction

12

chemical reaction at the back of the retina activates --

bipolar cells

13

bipolar cells then activate -- whose combined axons form the optic nerve

ganglion cells

14

-- transmits info (via thalamus) to the brain

optic nerve

15

cones and rods provide a special --

sensitivity

16

cones are sensitive to -- and --

detail and color

17

rods are sensitive to --

faint light

18

How does the brain turn light stimuli into useful information about the world?

- Collection and analysis of sensory information
- Linkage of optic nerve with neurons in thalamus

19

color processing occurs in --

two stages

20

Retina’s red, green, and blue cones respond in varying degrees to --, as the Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory suggested

different color stimuli

21

Cones’ responses are then processed by --, as Hering’s theory proposed

opponent- process cells

22

Involves nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific feature of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement

feature detection

23

Hubel and Wiesel: Showed brain’s computing system -- and then -- visual images

deconstructs then reassembles

24

Hubel and Wiesel: Found specialized -- receive information from ganglions cells and pass to supercell clusters

occipital lobe neuron cells

25

brain delegates the work of processing motion, form, depth, and -- to different areas.

color

26

After taking a scene apart, the brain integrates these subdimensions into the --

perceived image

27

-- propose principles used to organize sensations into perception.

Gestalt psychologists

28

People tend to organize pieces of information into an organized whole or--

Gestalt

29

Organization of visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings

figure-ground

30

Perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into meaningful groups

grouping

31

Human minds use these grouping strategies to see patterns and objects.

proximity, closure, continuity

32

Represents ability to see objects in three dimensions, although the images that strike the retina are two dimensional

depth perception

33

depth perception allows us to judge --

distance

34

depth perception is present, at least in part, at -- in humans and other animals

birth

35

-- test of early 3D perception (Gibson and Walk)

The Visual Cliff

36

most infants -- to crawl across the visual cliff

refuse

37

crawling, no matter when it begins, seems to -- an infant's fear of heights

increase

38

Two eyes help perception of depth

binocular cues

39

Binocular cue for perceiving depth

retinal disparity

40

By comparing images from the two eyes, the brain calculates --

distance

41

used by 3D film makers

retinal disparity

42

Depth cue, such as interposition or linear perspective,
available to either eye alone

monocular cue

43

perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color even if changing -- alters the wavelengths reflected by the object

illumination

44

Perception of objects as having constant size even when distance from them varies

size constancy

45

Effect of sensory restriction on infant cats, monkeys, and humans suggests there is a critical period for normal --

sensory and perceptual development

46

Without --, normal connections do not develop.

stimulation

47

Ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field

perceptual adaptation