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Flashcards in Module 2 Deck (55):
1

-- an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning

intuition

2

humans cannot rely soloed on intuition and --

common sense

3

Tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we could have predicted it

hindsight bias (I-knew-it-all-along)

4

Why, after friends start dating, do we often fell that we knew they were meant to be together?

hindsight bias (I-knew-it-all-along)

5

People tend to think they know more than they do.

overconfidence

6

T/F: overconfidence occurs in academic and social behavior

true

7

people perceive -- in random events to make sense of their world

patterns/order

8

three phenomena that illustrate how intuition is overused and errors are made

hindsight bias, overconfidence, and tendency to perceive patterns in random events

9

Includes a passion to explore and understand the
world without misleading or being misled

curiosity

10

refers to a more careful style of forming and evaluating knowledge than simply using intuition.

critical thinking

11

scientific attitude should include these three things

curiosity, skepticism, and humility

12

Supports questions about behavior and mental processes: What do you mean? How do you know?

skepticism

13

Involves awareness that mistakes are possible and
willingness to be surprised

humility

14

a self-correcting process for asking questions and observing nature’s answers

scientific method

15

Explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes
observations and predicts behaviors or events

theory

16

testable prediction, often implied by a theory

hypothesis

17

Carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations)
used in a research study

operational definition

18

-- the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

Repeating

19

good theory

effectively organizes, --> clear predictions, stimulates research, may be replicated

20

is a systematic, objective observation of people

descriptive research

21

3 forms of descriptive research

case studies, naturalistic observations, and surveys/interviews

22

-- one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

case study

23

-- observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate or control the situation

naturalistic observation

24

• Examines many cases in less depth
• Wording effect
• Random
sampling

surveys and interviews

25

case studies provides fruitful ideas but cannot be used to --

generalize

26

naturalistic observations describes but does not -- behavior

explain

27

in naturalistic observations, you cannot -- for factors outside the lab

control

28

a measure of how closely two factors vary together, or how well you can predict a change in one from observing a change in the other

correlation

29

Indicates a direct relationship, meaning that two things
increase together or decrease together

positive correlation (0

30

Indicates an inverse relationship: As one thing increases,
the other decreases.

negative correlation (-1

31

Provides a statistical measure of how closely two things vary together and how well one predicts the other

correlation coefficient

32

No matter how strong the relationship, correlation does not prove --.

causation

33

The more children used various media, the less happy they were with their lives.

negative correlation

34

The longer children breast-fed, the greater their later academic development

positive correlation

35

Neither those in the study nor those collecting the
data know which group is receiving the treatment.

double-blind procedure

36

effect involves results caused by expectations alone

placebo effect

37

factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

independent variable

38

factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect

confounding variable

39

factor tha is measured; the variable that may change when the independent variable is manipulated

dependent variable

40

Rental housing experiment: test the effect of perceived ethnicity on the availability of a rental house - identically worded emails
% of positive replies
Patrick McDougall 89%
Said Al-Rahman 66%
Tyrell Jackson 56%

independent variable = name
dependent variable = % of positive replies

41

-- estimates often misread reality and misinform

Casual

42

Big, round, undocumented numbers warrant --

caution

43

Presentation of statistical information needs more --

transparency

44

Measures of central tendency include a -- score that represents a set of scores.

single

45

Most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

mode

46

Arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores; can be distorted by few atypical scores

mean

47

Middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it

median

48

Measures of -- reveal similarity or diversity in scores.

variation

49

Difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

range

50

Computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

standard deviation

51

Symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean and fewer and fewer near the extremes

normal curve/distribution

52

-- percent fall within one STD

68%

53

When is an observed difference reliable?

representative samples, less-variable observations, more cases

54

When sample averages are -- and difference between them is relatively --, the difference has statistical significance.

reliable, large

55

In psychological research, proof beyond a reasonable doubt means that the odds of its occurrence by chance are -- than 5 percent

less