Flashcards in Module 2 Deck (55):

1

## -- an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning

### intuition

2

## humans cannot rely soloed on intuition and --

### common sense

3

## Tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we could have predicted it

### hindsight bias (I-knew-it-all-along)

4

##
Why, after friends start dating, do we often fell that we knew they were meant to be together?

### hindsight bias (I-knew-it-all-along)

5

## People tend to think they know more than they do.

### overconfidence

6

## T/F: overconfidence occurs in academic and social behavior

### true

7

## people perceive -- in random events to make sense of their world

### patterns/order

8

## three phenomena that illustrate how intuition is overused and errors are made

### hindsight bias, overconfidence, and tendency to perceive patterns in random events

9

##
Includes a passion to explore and understand the

world without misleading or being misled

### curiosity

10

## refers to a more careful style of forming and evaluating knowledge than simply using intuition.

### critical thinking

11

## scientific attitude should include these three things

### curiosity, skepticism, and humility

12

## Supports questions about behavior and mental processes: What do you mean? How do you know?

### skepticism

13

##
Involves awareness that mistakes are possible and

willingness to be surprised

### humility

14

## a self-correcting process for asking questions and observing nature’s answers

### scientific method

15

##
Explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes

observations and predicts behaviors or events

### theory

16

## testable prediction, often implied by a theory

### hypothesis

17

##
Carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations)

used in a research study

### operational definition

18

## -- the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

### Repeating

19

## good theory

### effectively organizes, --> clear predictions, stimulates research, may be replicated

20

## is a systematic, objective observation of people

### descriptive research

21

## 3 forms of descriptive research

### case studies, naturalistic observations, and surveys/interviews

22

## -- one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

### case study

23

## -- observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate or control the situation

### naturalistic observation

24

##
• Examines many cases in less depth

• Wording effect

• Random

sampling

### surveys and interviews

25

## case studies provides fruitful ideas but cannot be used to --

### generalize

26

## naturalistic observations describes but does not -- behavior

### explain

27

## in naturalistic observations, you cannot -- for factors outside the lab

### control

28

## a measure of how closely two factors vary together, or how well you can predict a change in one from observing a change in the other

### correlation

29

##
Indicates a direct relationship, meaning that two things

increase together or decrease together

### positive correlation (0

30

##
Indicates an inverse relationship: As one thing increases,

the other decreases.

### negative correlation (-1

31

## Provides a statistical measure of how closely two things vary together and how well one predicts the other

### correlation coefficient

32

## No matter how strong the relationship, correlation does not prove --.

### causation

33

## The more children used various media, the less happy they were with their lives.

### negative correlation

34

## The longer children breast-fed, the greater their later academic development

### positive correlation

35

##
Neither those in the study nor those collecting the

data know which group is receiving the treatment.

### double-blind procedure

36

## effect involves results caused by expectations alone

### placebo effect

37

## factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

### independent variable

38

## factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect

### confounding variable

39

## factor tha is measured; the variable that may change when the independent variable is manipulated

### dependent variable

40

##
Rental housing experiment: test the effect of perceived ethnicity on the availability of a rental house - identically worded emails

% of positive replies

Patrick McDougall 89%

Said Al-Rahman 66%

Tyrell Jackson 56%

###
independent variable = name

dependent variable = % of positive replies

41

## -- estimates often misread reality and misinform

### Casual

42

## Big, round, undocumented numbers warrant --

### caution

43

## Presentation of statistical information needs more --

### transparency

44

## Measures of central tendency include a -- score that represents a set of scores.

### single

45

##
Most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

### mode

46

## Arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores; can be distorted by few atypical scores

### mean

47

## Middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it

### median

48

## Measures of -- reveal similarity or diversity in scores.

### variation

49

## Difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

### range

50

## Computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

### standard deviation

51

## Symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean and fewer and fewer near the extremes

### normal curve/distribution

52

## -- percent fall within one STD

### 68%

53

## When is an observed difference reliable?

### representative samples, less-variable observations, more cases

54

## When sample averages are -- and difference between them is relatively --, the difference has statistical significance.

### reliable, large

55