Flashcards in Module 2 Deck (55):
-- an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning
humans cannot rely soloed on intuition and --
Tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we could have predicted it
hindsight bias (I-knew-it-all-along)
Why, after friends start dating, do we often fell that we knew they were meant to be together?
hindsight bias (I-knew-it-all-along)
People tend to think they know more than they do.
T/F: overconfidence occurs in academic and social behavior
people perceive -- in random events to make sense of their world
three phenomena that illustrate how intuition is overused and errors are made
hindsight bias, overconfidence, and tendency to perceive patterns in random events
Includes a passion to explore and understand the
world without misleading or being misled
refers to a more careful style of forming and evaluating knowledge than simply using intuition.
scientific attitude should include these three things
curiosity, skepticism, and humility
Supports questions about behavior and mental processes: What do you mean? How do you know?
Involves awareness that mistakes are possible and
willingness to be surprised
a self-correcting process for asking questions and observing nature’s answers
Explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes
observations and predicts behaviors or events
testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations)
used in a research study
-- the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
effectively organizes, --> clear predictions, stimulates research, may be replicated
is a systematic, objective observation of people
3 forms of descriptive research
case studies, naturalistic observations, and surveys/interviews
-- one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
-- observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate or control the situation
• Examines many cases in less depth
• Wording effect
surveys and interviews
case studies provides fruitful ideas but cannot be used to --
naturalistic observations describes but does not -- behavior
in naturalistic observations, you cannot -- for factors outside the lab
a measure of how closely two factors vary together, or how well you can predict a change in one from observing a change in the other
Indicates a direct relationship, meaning that two things
increase together or decrease together
positive correlation (0
Indicates an inverse relationship: As one thing increases,
the other decreases.
negative correlation (-1
Provides a statistical measure of how closely two things vary together and how well one predicts the other
No matter how strong the relationship, correlation does not prove --.
The more children used various media, the less happy they were with their lives.
The longer children breast-fed, the greater their later academic development
Neither those in the study nor those collecting the
data know which group is receiving the treatment.
effect involves results caused by expectations alone
factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect
factor tha is measured; the variable that may change when the independent variable is manipulated
Rental housing experiment: test the effect of perceived ethnicity on the availability of a rental house - identically worded emails
% of positive replies
Patrick McDougall 89%
Said Al-Rahman 66%
Tyrell Jackson 56%
independent variable = name
dependent variable = % of positive replies
-- estimates often misread reality and misinform
Big, round, undocumented numbers warrant --
Presentation of statistical information needs more --
Measures of central tendency include a -- score that represents a set of scores.
Most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution
Arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores; can be distorted by few atypical scores
Middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
Measures of -- reveal similarity or diversity in scores.
Difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
Computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
Symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean and fewer and fewer near the extremes
-- percent fall within one STD
When is an observed difference reliable?
representative samples, less-variable observations, more cases
When sample averages are -- and difference between them is relatively --, the difference has statistical significance.