Modules 46-48 Flashcards Preview

Psych 10 > Modules 46-48 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Modules 46-48 Deck (92):
1

Is an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

personality

2

behavior is dynamic interaction between conscious and unconscious mind

psychodynamic/psychoanalysis theories

3

Focus on inner capacities for growth and self-fulfillment

humanistic approach (Carl Rogers)

4

Examine characteristic patterns of behavior

trait theories

5

Explore interaction between traits and social context

social-cognitive theories

6

- Observed patients whose disorders and/or distress had no clear physical explanations
- Concluded their problems reflected unacceptable thoughts and feelings, hidden away in the unconscious mind

Freud

7

Psychologists have used an -- image to illustrate Freud’s idea that the mind is mostly hidden beneath the conscious surface

iceberg

8

id is totally --

unconscious

9

T/F: ego and superego operate both consciously and unconsciously.

true

10

Unlike the parts of a frozen iceberg; however, the id, ego, and superego --

interact

11

first theory of personality

Freud's idea of the mind's structure

12

operates off the pleasure principle (gimme me now)
(babies)

id

13

operates off our morality principle (everything is wrong, fun = wrong)

superego

14

operates off the reality principle (middle ground), communicates with the id and superego

ego

15

devil

id

16

angel

superego

17

mostly conscious; makes peace between id and superego

ego

18

id is -- energy

unconscious

19

internalized ideals

superego

20

outside awareness but accessible

preconscious

21

Operates on pleasure principle; unconsciously strives to satisfy basic drives to survive, reproduce, and aggress

id

22

Operates on reality principle; seeks to realistically gratify id’s impulses to bring long-term pleasure; contains perceptions, thoughts, judgments and memories

ego

23

Focuses on ideal behavior; strives for perfections; acts as moral conscious

superego

24

Pleasure centers on the mouth— sucking, biting, chewing

oral (0-18 months)

25

Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control

anal (18-36 months)

26

Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings

phallic (3-6 years)

27

A phase of dormant sexual feelings

latency (6 to puberty)

28

maturation of sexual interests

genital (puberty on)

29

Ego protects itself with tactics that reduce and redirect anxiety by -- (defense mechanisms).

reality distortion

30

Defense mechanisms function -- and indirectly.

unconsciously

31

stuck in a stage is called

fixation

32

- Faced with a mild stressor, children and young orangutans seek from their caregivers.
- Freud might have interpreted these behaviors as --, a retreat to an earlier developmental stage.

regression

33

Retreating to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated.

regression

34

Switching unacceptable impulses into their opposites.

reaction formation

35

Disguising one’s own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.

projection

36

Offering self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening unconscious reasons for one’s actions.

rationalization

37

Shifting sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person.

displacement

38

defense mechanisms can cause problems when used --

too often

39

in denial is an example of

defense mechanism

40

Refusing to believe or even perceive painful realities.

denial

41

Repressing angry feelings, a person displays exaggerated friendliness.

reaction formation

42

“The thief thinks everyone else is a thief"

projection

43

A habitual drinker says she drinks with her friends “just to be sociable.”

rationalization

44

A little girl kicks the family dog after her mother sends her to her room.

displacement

45

Freud believed that --, the basic mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing impulses, enables other defense mechanisms

repression

46

smooching

repression

47

Neo-Freudians accepted many of Freud's ideas but placed more emphasis on -- and on social motives than sexual or aggression related ones

conscious mind

48

Personality test that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamics and reveal unconscious motives

projective test

49

Projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes (black and white cards)

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

50

Seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots; attempts to address low reliability and validity in most areas addressed with research-based, computer-aided tool (Most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots)

Rorschach inkblot test

51

Many research psychologists now think of the unconscious as information processing that occurs --

without awareness

52

-- involves schemas, priming, right-hemisphere activity, implicit
memories, emotions, and stereotypes

unconsciousness

53

Research supports two of Freud’s defense mechanisms:

reaction formation and projection

54

-- focused on potential for healthy personal growth and people’s striving for self- determination and self- realization

Maslow

55

-- posited that growth-promoting environment characteristics are genuineness, acceptance, and empathy.

Roger

56

-- see personality as a stable and enduring pattern of behavior

trait theorists

57

trait theorists -- differences rather than trying to explain them

describe

58

trait theorists use -- to identify clusters of behavior tendencies that occur together to tap basic components of intelligence

factor analysis

59

trait theorists suggest -- predispositions influence many traits

genetic

60

Eysenck Personality Questionnaire -- and emotionality factors inevitably emerged as basic personality dimensions

extraversion

61

Brain-activity scans of extroverts indicate they seek stimulation because normal brain arousal is relatively --.

low

62

Dopamine and dopamine-related neural activity tend to be -- in extroverts.

higher

63

Introversion is often misunderstood as shyness, but introverted people often simply seek -- levels of stimulation from their environment.

low

64

- Questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits
- Test items empirically derived, and tests objectively scored

personality inventory (MMPI; Eysenck)

65

Big Five personality factors

Conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extraversion

66

Behavior is influenced by the interaction of our -- with our environment.

inner disposition

67

In general, personality traits are -- and socially significant.

stable

68

Personality traits are -- of mortality, divorce, and occupational attainment.

predictors

69

Consistency of specific behaviors from one situation to another is --; average behaviors are predictable

weak

70

At any moment the -- situation powerfully influences a person’s behavior.

immediate

71

- Views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people’s traits (including their thinking) and their social context
- Emphasizes interaction of our traits with our situations
- Applies principles of learning, cognition, and social behavior to personality

Social-cognitive perspective (Bandura)

72

Big Five Research Questions?
How -- and -- are these traits?

stable and heritable

73

Big Five Research Questions?
Do traits reflect differing --?

brain structure

74

Big Five Research Questions?
Have these traits -- over time?

changed

75

Big Five Research Questions?
How well do these traits apply to various --?

cultures

76

Big Five Research Questions?
Do the Big Five traits predict our -- behaviors?

actual

77

Describes interaction and mutual influence of behavior, internal personal factors, and environmental factors

reciprocal determinism

78

Interaction of individuals and environments: Internal personal factors
Different people choose different --

environment

79

Interaction of individuals and environments: Internal personal factors
-- shape how people interpret and react to events

personalities

80

Interaction of individuals and environments: Internal personal factors
personalities help create -- to which people react

situations

81

our feeling of self-worth

self-esteem

82

our sense of competence on a task

self-efficacy

83

-- self-esteem correlates with less pressure to conform, with persistence at difficult tasks, and with happiness (but the direction of correlation is not clear)

high

84

Excessive optimism may lead to -- and may prevent recognition of real risks

complacency

85

excessive optimism may be -- when dealing with temptations

self-defeating

86

excessive optimism may be directed toward group

illusionary optimism

87

- Involves a readiness to perceive self favorably
- Suggests people accept more responsibility for good deeds than for bad, and for successes than for failure
- Often creates a better-than-average effect
- May underlie a range of conflicts

self-serving bias

88

is fragile, threatened by failure and criticism, and more vulnerable to perceived threats which feed anger and feelings of vulnerability.

defensive self-esteem

89

is less fragile, less contingent on external evaluations, and more likely to achieve a greater quality of life.

secure self-esteem

90

self-actualizing person

Maslow

91

person-centered perspective

Rogers

92

T/F: Researchers use self-report inventories and peer reports to assess and score the Big Five personality factors.

true