Flashcards in Module 14/15 Deck (65):
when one sperm cell unites with an egg to form a -- or fertilized egg
zygote enters a -- period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
The zygote’s inner cells become the --
zygote's outer cells become the --
developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
In the next 6 weeks, the fetus's body organs begin to --
form and function
by -- weeks the fetus is recognizably human
Agent, such as a chemical or virus, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
Physical and mental abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, signs include a small, out-of-proportion head and abnormal facial features.
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
newborn's automatic reflex responses
sucking, tonguing, swallowing, and breathing
newborns cry to elicit -- and --
help and comfort
newborns posses a biologically rooted --
newborns have an inborn preference for looking towards --
brain dev at birth: -- growth spurt and synaptic pruning
brain dev at 3-6 months rapid -- growth and continued growth into adolescence and beyond
brain dev at early childhood is -- for some skills such as language and vision
brain dev throughout life, -- changes brain tissue
T/F: infants are capable of learning and remembering
Infantile amnesia may reflect -- memory.
motor skills develop as nervous system and -- mature
motor skills are primarily universal in --, but not in timing
(Piaget) children are -- thinkers
(Piaget) Mind develops through series of universal, -- stages from simple reflexes to adult abstract reasoning
(Piaget) Children’s maturing brains build schemas which are used and adjusted through -- and accommodation
(Piaget) Tools for thinking and reasoning change with
adaptation, assimilation, accommodation
(Piaget) Awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
(Piaget) children age 18-30 months may fail to take the size of an object into account when trying to perform impossible actions with it
(Piaget) preoperational stage
(Piaget) - Child learns to use language but cannot yet perform
the mental operations of concrete logic
- egocentrism/curse of knowledge
(Piaget) - Involves ability to read mental state of others
- Between 31⁄2 and 41⁄2, children worldwide use theory of mind to realize others may hold false beliefs
- By 4 to 5, children anticipate false beliefs of friends
Theory of mind
(Piaget) concrete operational
(Piaget) - Children gain the mental operations that enable them
to think logically about concrete events.
- They begin to understand change in form before change in quantity and become able to understand simple math and conservation.
(Piaget) formal operational
(Piaget) - Children are no longer limited to concrete reasoning
based on actual experience.
- They are able to think abstractly.
(Vygotsky) children's minds grow through -- with the physical environment
(Vygotsky) By age 7, children are able to think and solve problems with --
(Vygotsky) parents and others provide a -- to facilitate a child's higher level of thinking
(Vygotsky) the language of the child's culture in -- is used
internalized, inner speech
Development is more -- than Piaget theorized.
Children may be more -- than Piaget’s theory revealed.
Children with ASD have impaired theory of mind, social deficiencies, and repetitive behaviors.
autism spectrum disorder
Reading faces and -- is challenging for those with ASD.
Underlying causes of ASD are attributed to -- among brain regions that facilitate theory of mind skills and genetic influences.
prevalence of ASD -- boys for every girl
ASD -- when prenatal testosterone/extreme male brain exists
ASD -- among elite math students and progeny of engineers and MIT graduates
Emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver, and showing distress on separation
At about 8 months, soon after object permanence develops, children separated from their caregivers display --
Infants form -- not simply because parents gratify biological needs but, more importantly, because they are comfortable, familiar, and responsive.
Another key to attachment is --.
Optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development
Process by which certain animals form strong attachments during early life
-- experiments show that some children are securely attached and others are insecurely attached
Infants’ differing attachment styles reflect both their -- and the responsiveness of their parents and child-care providers
Early attachment impact on later adult relationships and comfort with --
affection and intimacy
Most children growing up in adversity or experiencing abuse are --, but those who are severely neglected by their parents, or otherwise prevented from forming attachments at an early age, may be at risk for attachment problem
self-concept, an understanding and evaluation of who we are, emerges --
6 months: Self-awareness begins with -- in mirror (Darwin)
15-18 months: Schema of how face should look --
-- More detailed descriptions of gender, group membership, psychological traits, and peer comparisons
self image stable by
8-10 years old
Parenting styles reflect varying degrees of -- (Baumrind)
parents tend to have children with the highest self-esteem, self-reliance, and social competence.
parents tend to have children who are more aggressive and immature.