Module 14/15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 14/15 Deck (65):
1

when one sperm cell unites with an egg to form a -- or fertilized egg

zygote

2

zygote enters a -- period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

2-week

3

The zygote’s inner cells become the --

embryo

4

zygote's outer cells become the --

placenta

5

developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month

embryo

6

In the next 6 weeks, the fetus's body organs begin to --

form and function

7

by -- weeks the fetus is recognizably human

9

8

Agent, such as a chemical or virus, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

teratogen

9

Physical and mental abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, signs include a small, out-of-proportion head and abnormal facial features.

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

10

newborn's automatic reflex responses

sucking, tonguing, swallowing, and breathing

11

newborns cry to elicit -- and --

help and comfort

12

newborns posses a biologically rooted --

temperament

13

newborns have an inborn preference for looking towards --

faces

14

brain dev at birth: -- growth spurt and synaptic pruning

neuronal

15

brain dev at 3-6 months rapid -- growth and continued growth into adolescence and beyond

frontal lobe

16

brain dev at early childhood is -- for some skills such as language and vision

critical period

17

brain dev throughout life, -- changes brain tissue

learning

18

T/F: infants are capable of learning and remembering

true

19

Infantile amnesia may reflect -- memory.

conscious

20

motor skills develop as nervous system and -- mature

muscles

21

motor skills are primarily universal in --, but not in timing

sequence

22

(Piaget) children are -- thinkers

active

23

(Piaget) Mind develops through series of universal, -- stages from simple reflexes to adult abstract reasoning

irreversible

24

(Piaget) Children’s maturing brains build schemas which are used and adjusted through -- and accommodation

assimilation

25

(Piaget) Tools for thinking and reasoning change with
development

adaptation, assimilation, accommodation

26

(Piaget) Awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

object permanence

27

(Piaget) children age 18-30 months may fail to take the size of an object into account when trying to perform impossible actions with it

scale errors

28

(Piaget) preoperational stage

2-7 years

29

(Piaget) - Child learns to use language but cannot yet perform
the mental operations of concrete logic
- conservation
- egocentrism/curse of knowledge

preoperational stage

30

(Piaget) - Involves ability to read mental state of others
- Between 31⁄2 and 41⁄2, children worldwide use theory of mind to realize others may hold false beliefs
- By 4 to 5, children anticipate false beliefs of friends

Theory of mind

31

(Piaget) concrete operational

7-11 years

32

(Piaget) - Children gain the mental operations that enable them
to think logically about concrete events.
- They begin to understand change in form before change in quantity and become able to understand simple math and conservation.

concrete operational

33

(Piaget) formal operational

12-adulthood

34

(Piaget) - Children are no longer limited to concrete reasoning
based on actual experience.
- They are able to think abstractly.

formal operational

35

(Vygotsky) children's minds grow through -- with the physical environment

interaction

36

(Vygotsky) By age 7, children are able to think and solve problems with --

words

37

(Vygotsky) parents and others provide a -- to facilitate a child's higher level of thinking

temporary scaffold

38

(Vygotsky) the language of the child's culture in -- is used

internalized, inner speech

39

Development is more -- than Piaget theorized.

continuous

40

Children may be more -- than Piaget’s theory revealed.

competent

41

Children with ASD have impaired theory of mind, social deficiencies, and repetitive behaviors.

autism spectrum disorder

42

Reading faces and -- is challenging for those with ASD.

social signals

43

Underlying causes of ASD are attributed to -- among brain regions that facilitate theory of mind skills and genetic influences.

poor communication

44

prevalence of ASD -- boys for every girl

four

45

ASD -- when prenatal testosterone/extreme male brain exists

Higher

46

ASD -- among elite math students and progeny of engineers and MIT graduates

Higher

47

Emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver, and showing distress on separation

infant attachment

48

At about 8 months, soon after object permanence develops, children separated from their caregivers display --

stranger anxiety.

49

Infants form -- not simply because parents gratify biological needs but, more importantly, because they are comfortable, familiar, and responsive.

attachments

50

Another key to attachment is --.

familiarity

51

Optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development

critical period

52

Process by which certain animals form strong attachments during early life

imprinting

53

-- experiments show that some children are securely attached and others are insecurely attached

strange situation

54

Infants’ differing attachment styles reflect both their -- and the responsiveness of their parents and child-care providers

individual temperament

55

Early attachment impact on later adult relationships and comfort with --

affection and intimacy

56

Most children growing up in adversity or experiencing abuse are --, but those who are severely neglected by their parents, or otherwise prevented from forming attachments at an early age, may be at risk for attachment problem

resilient

57

self-concept, an understanding and evaluation of who we are, emerges --

gradually

58

6 months: Self-awareness begins with -- in mirror (Darwin)

self-recognition

59

15-18 months: Schema of how face should look --

apparent

60

-- More detailed descriptions of gender, group membership, psychological traits, and peer comparisons

School age:

61

self image stable by

8-10 years old

62

Parenting styles reflect varying degrees of -- (Baumrind)

control

63

parents tend to have children with the highest self-esteem, self-reliance, and social competence.

authoritative

64

parents tend to have children who are more aggressive and immature.

permissive

65

parents tend to have children with less social skills and self-esteem.

authoritarian