Module 16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 16 Deck (51):
1

-- transition from puberty to social independence

adolescence

2

Early maturing in boys: More popular, self-assured,
and independent; more at risk for alcohol use,
delinquency, and premature --

sexual activity

3

Early maturing girls: Mismatch between physical
and emotional maturity may encourage search for
--; teasing or sexual harassment may occur

older teens

4

Teens: Frontal lobe development and -- occur and may produce irrational and risky behaviors

synaptic pruning

5

-- believed in developing reasoning power in teens; Develop new abstract thinking tools (formal
operations)

Piaget

6

-- believed in developing moral reasoning in teens; Use moral reasoning that develops in universal sequence to guide moral actions

Kolhberg

7

much of morality rooted in moral intuitions that
are made quickly and automatically

Haidt

8

Moral cognition is often automatic but can be overridden

Greene

9

moral action feeds --

moral attitudes

10

Ability to delay gratification linked to more positive outcomes in adulthood

Mischel

11

Self-interest; obey rules to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards

preconventional morality (before age 9)

12

Uphold laws and rules to gain social approval or maintain social order

conventional morality (early adolescence)

13

Actions reflect belief in basic rights and self- defined ethical principles

postconventional morality (adolescence and beyond)

14

Adolescence struggle involves -- versus role confusion-continuing into adulthood

identity

15

Social identity involves the “--” aspect of self- concept that comes from group memberships.

we

16

Healthy identity formation is followed by capacity to build --

close relationships

17

Influence of parents and peers is --.

complementary

18

Includes the time from 18 to mid-twenties in a not-yet-
settled phase of life

emerging adulthood

19

emerging adulthood is characterized by not yet assuming adult responsibilities and independences and feelings of being --

“in between”

20

T/F: early adulthood may involve living with and still being emotionally dependent on parents

true

21

Muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness
and cardiac output peak in mid-twenties.

early adulthood

22

Physical vigor more closely linked to health and
exercise than age

middle adulthood

23

during middle adulthood, physical decline and fertility decline is --

gradual

24

Visual sharpness, distance perception, and stamina diminish; pupils shrink and become less transparent

late adulthood

25

Exercise slows aging and stimulates -- and neural connections

brain cell development

26

-- is peak time for some learning and memory.

early adulthood

27

-- shows greater decline in ability to recall rather than recognize memory.

middle adulthood

28

-- is characterized by better retention of meaningful than meaningless information, longer word production time.

late adulthood

29

End of life is characterized by terminal decline; typically occurs during last -- years of life

four

30

NCD

neurocognitive disorders

31

Acquired (not lifelong) disorders marked by cognitive
deficits

NCDs

32

NCDs are often related to Alzheimer’s disease, brain injury or disease, or --

substance abuse

33

NCDs results in the erosion of -- that is not typical of normal aging

mental abilities

34

- Marked by neural plaques, often with an onset after age 80
- Entails a progressive decline in memory and other cognitive abilities

Alzheimer's disease

35

Memory, then reasoning, deteriorates. As the disease continues to run its course: Emotionally flatness, disorientation and disinhibition, incontinence, and mental vacancy occurs

disease progression

36

Loss of brain cells and deterioration of acetylcholine- producing neurons; protein fragments that accumulate as plaque

neural involvement

37

Midlife -- occurs in early forties

transition

38

Social clock -- from era to era and culture to culture

varies

39

being productive and supporting future generations

generativity

40

forming close relationships

intimacy

41

Divorce rates related to women’s increased ability to -- and their higher expectations for a mate

support themselves

42

-- marriage related to higher divorce rates

trial

43

Work provides a sense of competence, accomplishment, and -- for many adults.

self-definition

44

-- grow after midlife and negative feelings decline.

Positive feelings

45

Brain-wave reactions to negative images -- with age.

diminish

46

Our ability to handle tasks and our organizational skills grow dramatically in our 20s and continue to improve as we age.

conscientiousness

47

The initial growth of conscientiousness is in our -- is likely due to new work and family commitments

20s

48

Our warmth, generosity, and helpfulness make the biggest improvement in our 30s and 40s; like conscientiousness, changes in agreeableness are probably due to new work and family commitments.

agreeableness

49

Worry and our sense of instability actually decrease with age for women--but not for men.

neuroticism

50

our desire to try new experiences declines slightly with age for both genders

openness

51

our need to seek social support declines slightly for women as they age, but changes little in men

extraversion