Module 24 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 24 Deck (32):
1

Persistence of learning over time through the
encoding, storage, and retrieval of information

memory

2

Ebbinghaus found that the more times he practiced a list of nonsense syllables on day 1, the -- he required to relearn it on day 2.

less time

3

-- of relearning is one measure of memory retention.

Speed

4

Psychologists use -- to think and communicate about memory.

memory models

5

- Compares human memory to computer operations
- Involves three processes: encoding, storage, and retrieval

information-processing models

6

- Focuses on multitrack, parallel processing
- Views memories as products of interconnected neural networks

connectionism information-processing model

7

Atkinson-Shiffren model
1. We first record to-be-remembered information as a fleeting --

sensory memory.

8

Atkinson-Shiffren model
2. we process information into --, where we encode it through rehearsal.

short-term memory

9

Atkinson-Shiffren model
3. Finally, information moves into -- for later retrieval.

long-term memory

10

some information slips into long-term memory via a “back door,” without our consciously attending to it

automatic processing

11

Focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory (occurs during second stage)

working memory

12

working memory is handled by a --

central executive

13

of conscious facts and experiences encoded through conscious, effortful processing

explicit/declarative memories

14

that form through automatic processes and bypass conscious encoding track

implicit/nondeclarative memories

15

Implicit memories include automatic skills and -- associations.

classically
conditioned

16

information is -- processed about space, time, and frequency

automatically

17

With experience and practice, -- become automatic

explicit memories

18

first stage in forming explicit memories

sensory memory

19

Immediate,verybrief
recording of sensory information in the memory system

sensory memory

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picture-image memory

iconic

21

sound memory

echoic

22

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly (such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing) before the information is stored or forgotten

short-term memory

23

Newer understanding of short-term memory that stresses conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory

working memory

24

For working memory, Capacity varies by -- at time of memory tasks

age and distractions

25

Organization of items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

chunking

26

Memory aids, especially techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
(Peg-word system)

mnemonics

27

Organization of items into a few broad categories that are divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts

hierarchies

28

Encoding is more effective when it is
spread over time.

spacing effect

29

-- practice: Produces better long-term recall

Distributed

30

-- practice: Produces speedy short-term learning and feelings of confidence

Massive

31

-- encodes on a very basic level (word’s letters) or a more intermediate level (word’s sound).

Shallow processing

32

-- encodes semantically based on word meaning

Deep processing