Flashcards in Module 24 Deck (32):
Persistence of learning over time through the
encoding, storage, and retrieval of information
Ebbinghaus found that the more times he practiced a list of nonsense syllables on day 1, the -- he required to relearn it on day 2.
-- of relearning is one measure of memory retention.
Psychologists use -- to think and communicate about memory.
- Compares human memory to computer operations
- Involves three processes: encoding, storage, and retrieval
- Focuses on multitrack, parallel processing
- Views memories as products of interconnected neural networks
connectionism information-processing model
1. We first record to-be-remembered information as a fleeting --
2. we process information into --, where we encode it through rehearsal.
3. Finally, information moves into -- for later retrieval.
some information slips into long-term memory via a “back door,” without our consciously attending to it
Focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory (occurs during second stage)
working memory is handled by a --
of conscious facts and experiences encoded through conscious, effortful processing
that form through automatic processes and bypass conscious encoding track
Implicit memories include automatic skills and -- associations.
information is -- processed about space, time, and frequency
With experience and practice, -- become automatic
first stage in forming explicit memories
recording of sensory information in the memory system
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly (such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing) before the information is stored or forgotten
Newer understanding of short-term memory that stresses conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
For working memory, Capacity varies by -- at time of memory tasks
age and distractions
Organization of items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
Memory aids, especially techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
Organization of items into a few broad categories that are divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts
Encoding is more effective when it is
spread over time.
-- practice: Produces better long-term recall
-- practice: Produces speedy short-term learning and feelings of confidence
-- encodes on a very basic level (word’s letters) or a more intermediate level (word’s sound).