Unit 5: The French Revolution and Napoleon Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 5: The French Revolution and Napoleon Deck (43):

balance of power

-how to counterbalance the power of one state by another to prevent any one state from dominating others


reason of state

-principle that a nation should act on the basis of it’s long term interests and not merely to further the dynastic interests of its ruling families


The War of Austrian Succession

-Frederick II the Great invaded Austria to invade Silesia (took advantage of Maria)
-war→ Austria and England= fought Prussia and France; Prussia seized Selisa; France took Austrian succession; not only in Europe
-peace treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle= 1748; promised return of all occupied territories except Silesia to their original owners
-refusal to give back silesia granted another war (Prussia and Austria)


Pragmatic Sanction

-agreed to recognize Charles VI's daughter as legal heir (Maria Theresa)


The Seven Year's War

-Maria Theresa= build army
-foreign minister= Count Wenzel von Kaunitz→ separate Prussia from ally, France
-france & Austria vs Prussia and GB
-diplomatic revolution
-Russia joined alliance
-diplomatic revolution of 1756⇒ led to another war; 3 major areas of conflict→ Europe, India, and N America
-some historians call the 7 yrs war the first civil war
-Europe= clash of British and Prussians against Austrians, Russians, and French
-India= Anglo-French struggle


diplomatic revolution

-change of alliances due to reason
-don't care about past rivalries just what is best for the country


War in India

-Anglo-French struggle
-Great War for Empire
-fought in India and N America
-French returned Madras to Britain After the War of Austrian Succession but French and British supported opposing native princes
-Robert Clive
-Treat of Paris


****Robert Clive

-British general


Treaty of Paris in 1763

- French withdrew and left India for the British


French and Indian War-

-French allied with Indians who thought they were less threatening than the British
-french relied on navy
-British defeated their navy
-treaty of paris= French cede Canada and lands of the east of Mississippi to Britain; Spain gave spanish Florida to British; French gave Louisiana territory to Spanish
-British= greatest colonial power in the world 1763



-practice of treating the first son as the favorite



-abandoning children at fondling homes


agricultural revolution

-application of new agricultural techniques that allowed for a large increase in productivity


Jethro Tull

-discovered that using a hoe to help keep the soil loose allowed air and moisture to reach plants and enabled them to grow better
-seed drill


seed drill

-Jethro Tull
-drill to plant seeds in rows rather than scattering them by hand (lost seeds to birds)


*******enclosure acts

-enclosed open fields and common land in the country, creating legal property rights to land that was before considered common
-England became land of large estates; small farmers were forced to become wage workers
-destroyed traditional patterns of English village life


Bank of England

-founded in 1694; deposits and exchange foreign currencies
-loans→ lend money to gov→ allowed to issue paper “banknotes” backed by by credit
-negotiable; paper substitute for gold and silver currency


national debt

- public debt; the amount of money a country borrowed
-different from monarch’s personal debts
-capital for financing larger armies and other gov undertakings could be raised in ever-greater quantities


cottage industry

-capitalist entrepreneurs brought raw materials to rural workers, who made it into finished goods; entrepreneurs sold finished product, made a profit, and used it to manufacture more
-spinners and weavers did work in cottages
-family enterprise→ women and children spin while men spun on looms
-enabled rural ppl to earn incomes that supplemented pitiful wages as laborers/farmers


"putting out" or "domestic" system

-merchant-capitalist entrepreneur bought raw materials, mostly wool and flax, and “put them out to rural workers, who spun the raw material into yarn and then wove it into cloth on simple loons
-cottage industry


Richard Arkwright

-water frame


water frame

-powered by horse or water
-turned yarn much faster than cottage spinning wheels
-more yarn→ mechanized looms



- ⅓ of crops usually; paid to village church but wound up in the hands of landowners


country house

- Georgian style (Hanoverian kings)
-greater privacy; separation of lower and upper floors; keep servants at a distance
-****influence of women in 2nd half of 18th century
-separate from lower-classes in villages and ger farmland out of sight
-take land for parks


grand tour

-sons of aristocrats completed their education by making a tour of Europe’s major cities
-English= crucial part of education
-boys= accompanied by tutor
-learn classical arts, architecture, manners......
-not an easy travel





*********Thomas Gainsborough



Declaration of Independence

-July 4, 1776
-written by Thomas Jefferson
-Enlightened ideas of natural rights→ life, liberty , and pursuit of happiness
-declared colonies to be “free and independent states absolved from all allegiance to the British crown


George Washington

-Second Continental Congress appointed him to be authority go Continental army
-military experience from French and Indian War; political experience from Virginia
-Continental Army= undisciplined amateurs whose form of service were usually very brief


General Cornwalllis

- British general
-Yorktown 1781= forced to surrender to army of French and Americans under GW
-Treaty of Paris 1783 =recognized independence of colonies and grated Americans control of western territory from Appalachians to Mississippi River


Articles of Confederation

- did little to provide for a strong central gov
-1787= delegates revised it into a constitution


REMEMBER United States Constitution and Bill of Rights!!!!!



marquis de Lafayette

- aristocrat; volunteered for service in America; wanted to fight England (france’s enemy)
-associated with GW; brought ideas of individual liberties and notions of republicanism and popular sovereignty
-member of Society of Thirty= ppl from salons; “lovers of liberty”, influential in french rev
-Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen= signs of influence of American Dec of Independence and constitution


First Esate

-clergy (those who pray)
- 130,000 ppl; church owned 10% of land
-exempt from taille (france’s chief tax)
-paid voluntary contribution every 5 yrs to state
-divided= higher clergy= aristocratic families and shared interest of nobility); parish priests= poor commoners


Second Estate

-nobility; 350,000 ppl who owned 25-30% of the land (those who fight)
-nobles controlled heavy industry, through investments or ownership of mining and metallurgical enterprises
-all thought to expand privileges at the expense of the monarchy (defend liberty by resisting the arbitrary actions of monarchy) and to maintain monopolistic control over positions in the military, church, and gov
-nobility of the robe
-nobility of the sword


nobility of the robe

- office holding, a pathway that had often enabled commoners to attain nobles rank


nobility of the sword

-claimed to be descendants of the original medieval nobility


Segur Law

-attempted to limit the sale of military officerships to 4th generation nobles; excluded newly enrolled members of nobility


Third Esate

-everyone else
-commoners, majority of population
-divided by occupation, level of education, and wealth
-no serfdom but french peasants still had obligations to local landlords → old feudalism
-skilled artisans, shopkeepers, and other wage earners in cities



-middle class, 8% of population, owned 20-25% of the land
-merchants, industrialists, bankers= controlled resources for trade, manufacturing, and finance; benefited from prosperity after 1730
-pro ppl= lawyers, haders of public office, doctors, writers
land purchase= security and status
-excluded from social and political privileges and monopolized by nobles→ major cause of rev
-nobles and bourgeoisie= divided through differences; could not unify


old order

-old and rigid social order based on the concept of estates


assembly of notables

-gathering of nobles, prelates, and magistrates; refused to cooperate; gov’s attempt to go it alone brought more disaster


Estates General

- French parliamentary body that didn’t meet since 161
-by calling Estates-General, the gov was almost admitting that consent of the nation was required to raise taxes