Week 2 Protein Degradation Module Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 2 Protein Degradation Module Deck (24):
1

What is the functional difference between proteins with long life spans and proteins with relatively short lifespans?

Long lived proteins: may be involved with structure of the cell

Short lived proteins: need to respond quickly to change and are likely part of metabolic processes, cell signaling, or cell division

2

Define Proteolysis

breakdown of proteins into peptide fragments and AAs

3

Define proteases

the enzymes responsible for the breakdown of proteins

4

What are the two pathways of protein degradation?

ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, lysosomal pathway

5

describe the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway: general pathway? what does it degrade? does it require energy?

General pathway: proteins are marked with a chaing of ubiquitin molecules and then degraded by proteasomes

A selective process that degrades short-lived, damaged or misfolded proteins.

Requires ATP

6

What enzymes are involved in ubiquination of proteins?

E1
E2
E3

7

At what points is ATP needed for the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway?

ATP is needed to attach Ub to E1. and ATP is needed during the breakdown of proteins with proteasome

8

Describe how the enzymes work in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway

Ub attaches to E1 (ATP is hydrolyzed)-->E1-Ub transfers its Ub to E2-->E3 ligase transfers Ub to the target protein

9

After a Ub tagged protein is degraded, what happens to attacehd Ub?

they are recylced

10

What is the general structure of a proteasome?

contain an inner active site (protein degradation) and out protein binding sites.

11

compare the relative number of different E3 and E1 enzymes?

the genome has >600 Ub E3 ligases and much fewer E1 enzymes.

12

How do cytosolic proteins enter a lysosome?

Autophagy!

13

What are the three types of Autophagy?

Macroautophagy, microautophagy, chaperone-mediated autophagy

14

What types of things are consume with macroautophagy? (3)

proteins, protein aggregates, mitochondrium (organelles)

15

Describe the process/steps of macroautophagy

an isolation membrane (double membrane) expands to engulf cytosolic cargo-->cargo is sequestered in autophagosome (closed isolation membrane)-->autophagosome fuses with lysosome and contents are degraded

16

Describe the steps of microautophagy

lysosome invaginates and directly eats cytosolic components

17

What is an autophagic tube? where is it seen?

the invagination of the lysosome seen during the process of microautophagy. Vesicles bud off the tube and into the lysosome.

18

describe the selectivity of macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy

micro and macro: can be random or selective.

Chaperone: highly selective

19

what types of proteins are degraded by chaperone-mediated autophagy?

long-lived dispensable proteins (contrasts to Ub-mediated that degrades short lived)

20

what motif targets proteins to chaperone-mediated autophagy?

KFEQR motif

21

what are the steps of chaperone-mediated autophagy

Protein with KFEQR motif binds chaperone in cytosol-->chaperone targets protein to lysosomal membrane-->protein binds LAMP2A on surface of lysosomal membrane-->LAMP2A translocates protein into lysosomal lumen

22

what induces autophagy?

cellular stress

23

In general, what type of proteins are targeted by Ub-proteasome pathway and Autophagy? Selectivity?

Autophagy: long lived proteins and organelles (selective or non-selective)

Ub-Proteasome: short lived, damaged, or misfolded proteins. highly selective

24

what is mTOR? what does it do? during cell stress?

mTOR is a master regulator that positively promotes cell growth and proliferation. in a healthy cell mTOR inhibits expression of autophagy related genes. Under cellular stress mTOR signaling is impaired and Atgs are upregulated

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