Flashcards in Week 3 Behavior Lecture Deck (26):
what is a neutral stimulus?
CS: a stimulus that does not elicit a response
what is a unconditioned stimulus
UCS: a stimulus that naturally elicits a response
what is a natural response
UCR: the natural response to the UCS
what is a conditioned response
CR: the response to the neutral stimulus that is often similar to the UCR
A loud noise is always paired with the presence of a rat. eventually the rat is enough to elicit the response of fear. What is the UCS, UCR, CR, CS
UCS: loud noise
UCR: Fear of noise
CS: white rate
CR: fear of white rate
what are three behavioral treatments that are partly bases on classical conditioning?
1. systematic desensitization, exposure without learning an incompatible response, aversive conditioning
what should you think about when you think classical conditioning?
pavlov, UCR UCS CS CR
what are the steps in systematic desensitization? (3)
-learn an incompatible response besides fear/anxiety (deep breathing)
-create an anxiety hierarchy
-gradually expose to threatening stimuli
what is aversive conditioining?
it sensitizes a person and creates an undesirable CR
Paul has a fear of dogs. He goes to the psychologist who gradually exposes him to first the sound of a dog, then to a small dog, then to a large dog. what technique is this?
exposure w/o learning an incompatible response beforehand (elimiates the CR)
Bill is an alcoholic. His pyschologist gave him pills to take that make him nauseaous. He was told to take them whenever he wants alcohol. Bill eventually stops wanting alcohol. what technique is this?
aversive conditioning (produces an undesirabel CR)
Paul has a fear of dogs. He goes to the psychologist who teaches him a breating technique to use whenever he feels anxious. he then exposes him to first the sound of a dog, then to a small dog, then to a large dog. what technique is this?
systematic desensitization (eliminates the CR)
what are four challenges in using classical conditioning?
controlling exposure of fear (PTSD), identifiying focus of fear (anxiety disorder), timing the exposure to feared object/CS, making the exposure challenging enough
when thinking of operant conditioning, what should you think of?
Skinner, rewards and punishment
what is positive reinforcement?
applying rewards (positive) to make a behavior more likely (reinforce)
what is negative reinforcement?
taking away adverse consequences (negative) to make a behavior more likely (reinforce)
what is punishment?
applying aversive consequences makes behavior less likely to occur
what is extinction
withdrawing generally positivie consequences makes behavior less likely to occur
John put some soup into the microwave it’s now steaming hot. In the past when he tried to take out the bowl from the microwave after heating it up he has burned himself. He has since learned to put on oven gloves when taking the bowl out of the microwave. Since the oven gloves mean he never gets burned anymore he always puts them on. this is an example of....
is the behavior more or less likely to occur?more. is something being added or taken away? take away the pain
ben gets $5 every time he gets an A. this is an example of...
spanking is an example of what?
Imagine that a researcher has trained a lab rat to press a key to receive a food pellet. What happens when the researcher stops delivering the food? While extinction will not occur immediately, it will after time. If the rat continues to press the key but does not get the pellet, the behavior will eventually dwindle until is disappears entirely. is an example of?
what is shaping?
rewarding progress, not perfection
tim gets out of bed 20X every night. his mom begins to reward him if he gets out 18X....16X and the 0X what is this?
for positive reinforcement what should be the frequency of consequences?
continuous reinforcement to acquire, intermittent reinforcement to maintain