Flashcards in Week 5 Intracellular Accumulation Deck (21):
what is steatosis? what cell types 4?
triglycerides (lipid droplets) in cytoplasm of hepatocytes (also in heart, muscle, kidney)
what are the two general causes of steatosis?
excess FAs or decreased VLDL production
how can excess FAs appear in the liver? 4
1. insulin resistance: defective insulin signaling no longer inhibits HSL and FFAs are produced from adipocytes
2. Oritc acid: lipogenesis in liver due to hypoxia or deficiency in essential FAs
3. Fatty Acid Oxidation disorder (FAs accumulate)
4. ethanol metabolism: beta oxidation decreases and FAs accumulate
in each case the accumulation of FAs leads to the formation of TGs and lipid droplets
how do lipid droplets appear in H&E and Oil Red O stain?
H&E: large clear vacuoles ("soap bubbles")
Oil Red O stain: stains lipids red
what causes Xanthoma and Atherosclerosis?
accumulation of cholesterol in macrophages of heel/knee or arteries.
how does Xanthoma and Atherosclerosis appear in a slide?
"foamy macrophages" many small clear droplets within a cell
what causes gaucher disease/glucocerebrosidase deficiency
accumulation of glucocerebrosides (lipids) in macrophages of liver, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow due to a LYSOSOMAL STORAGE DISEASE
how does guacher disease appear on a slide?
wrinkled tissue paper appearance of macrophage cytoplasm
what causes I cell disease
lysosomal storage disease caused by the inability of M-6-P to be added to acid hydrolases in the golgi. Acid hydrolases are exocytosed instead of going to lysosomes.
how does I-cell disease appear under a microscope
inclusions cells. lysosomes have an abundance of stainable material within them.
what causes A1AT deficiency
misfolded aggregates of alpha-1-antitrypsin accumulate in ER of liver dues to abnormal folding. (also leads to emphysema)
how does A1AT deficiency appear with H&E? PAS&Diastase?
H&E: proteins appear pink in ER (round, smooth hyaline globules)
PAS&Diastase: if stain remains know it is not just glycogen (glycoprotein)
in general how do proteins appear in H&E
how will alcoholic liver disease present in a stain?
Mallory bodies: aggregates of keratin IF that stain pink, not smooth like hyaline globules)
how will glycogen storage diseases appear when using PAS and Diastase
no stain is present; appear as vacuoles
how will water accumulation appear in a stain?
water does not stain. appear as vacuoles
what will lipofuscin pigment look like in an H&E stain? what is it?
golden-brown pigment in cytoplasm of cardiac muscle cells. caused by collection of lipids and proteins that cannot be metabolized
how will melanin appear in an H&E stain?
brown-black pigment in cytoplasm of skin cells
how will the accumulaiton of hemosiderin appear in H&E? what stain is used to prove this?
coarse, golden, yellow-brown intracellular pigment. prussian blue stain (for iron) proves it
what is anthracosis
accumulaiton of exogenous carbon by alveolar macrophages (pollution)