Week 5 Intracellular Accumulation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 5 Intracellular Accumulation Deck (21):
1

what is steatosis? what cell types 4?

triglycerides (lipid droplets) in cytoplasm of hepatocytes (also in heart, muscle, kidney)

2

what are the two general causes of steatosis?

excess FAs or decreased VLDL production

3

how can excess FAs appear in the liver? 4

1. insulin resistance: defective insulin signaling no longer inhibits HSL and FFAs are produced from adipocytes
2. Oritc acid: lipogenesis in liver due to hypoxia or deficiency in essential FAs
3. Fatty Acid Oxidation disorder (FAs accumulate)
4. ethanol metabolism: beta oxidation decreases and FAs accumulate

in each case the accumulation of FAs leads to the formation of TGs and lipid droplets

4

how do lipid droplets appear in H&E and Oil Red O stain?

H&E: large clear vacuoles ("soap bubbles")

Oil Red O stain: stains lipids red

5

what causes Xanthoma and Atherosclerosis?

accumulation of cholesterol in macrophages of heel/knee or arteries.

6

how does Xanthoma and Atherosclerosis appear in a slide?

"foamy macrophages" many small clear droplets within a cell

7

what causes gaucher disease/glucocerebrosidase deficiency

accumulation of glucocerebrosides (lipids) in macrophages of liver, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow due to a LYSOSOMAL STORAGE DISEASE

8

how does guacher disease appear on a slide?

wrinkled tissue paper appearance of macrophage cytoplasm

9

what causes I cell disease

lysosomal storage disease caused by the inability of M-6-P to be added to acid hydrolases in the golgi. Acid hydrolases are exocytosed instead of going to lysosomes.

10

how does I-cell disease appear under a microscope

inclusions cells. lysosomes have an abundance of stainable material within them.

11

what causes A1AT deficiency

misfolded aggregates of alpha-1-antitrypsin accumulate in ER of liver dues to abnormal folding. (also leads to emphysema)

12

how does A1AT deficiency appear with H&E? PAS&Diastase?

H&E: proteins appear pink in ER (round, smooth hyaline globules)
PAS&Diastase: if stain remains know it is not just glycogen (glycoprotein)

13

in general how do proteins appear in H&E

pink

14

how will alcoholic liver disease present in a stain?

Mallory bodies: aggregates of keratin IF that stain pink, not smooth like hyaline globules)

15

how will glycogen storage diseases appear when using PAS and Diastase

no stain is present; appear as vacuoles

16

how will water accumulation appear in a stain?

water does not stain. appear as vacuoles

17

what will lipofuscin pigment look like in an H&E stain? what is it?

golden-brown pigment in cytoplasm of cardiac muscle cells. caused by collection of lipids and proteins that cannot be metabolized

18

how will melanin appear in an H&E stain?

brown-black pigment in cytoplasm of skin cells

19

how will the accumulaiton of hemosiderin appear in H&E? what stain is used to prove this?

coarse, golden, yellow-brown intracellular pigment. prussian blue stain (for iron) proves it

20

what is anthracosis

accumulaiton of exogenous carbon by alveolar macrophages (pollution)

21

how does anthracosis appear in H&E?

black carbon particles

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