Starting from most superficial to deep list the following in order: muscle, hypodermis/superficial fascia/SQ, dermis, epidermis, deep fascia
group of cells with a common fxn
study of microscopic anatomy. includes cellular level, tissue level and organ level
what is the role (2) of connective tissue?
protections and support
acidic dyes bind with what ion?
acidic dies carry a negative charge and bind to cationic cell/tissue components
what are some things inside the cell that will bind with acidic dies?
what has a positive charge? mitochondria, secretory granules, cytoplasm, basement membrane
basic dies will bind what?
carry a net positive charge and will therefore bind anionic cell/tissue components
what is the most common acid dye?
what sort of things will basic dyes bind?
DNA, RNA, carboxyl groups of proteins, sulfate, cartilage matrix
what is the most common basic dye?
what is an H&E stain?
hematoxylin and eosin stain that gives the best overall picture of microscopic structures
what is the integument composed of? 2
skin and accessory structures
the accessory structures of the integument include: (4
sebacous glands, sudoriferous glands, hair, nails
how are glands and follicles of the integument formed?
down growths of epidermis
what are the major functions of the integument? (5)
protection, sensation, temp reg, metabolic, waste elimination
what are the two layers of the skin
epidermis and dermis
contrast the epidermis from the dermis. location, make-up, derived from what
epidermis: superficial, keratinized saquamous epithelium, ectoderm derived dermis: deep, connective tissue, mesoderm derived
describe the vasularity and innervation of epithelium
avascular but innervated (rely on underlying connective tissue to supply nutrients)
what would a histologist classify as thick skin?
they look at the thickness of the epidermis. thick skin is only seen at palms and souls of feet (no hair follicles here)
what would a gross anatomist classify as thick skin?
they look at the epidermis and dermis. thickest skin is the upper back
what is connective tissue?
cells in an extracellular matrix
all connective tissues are derived from what stem cell?
describe the vasularity of connnective tissue
varies in vascularity: avascualr=cartilage vascular=bone
what makes up (2) the ECM
protein fibers and ground substance
what protein fibers are seen in the ECM?
collagen, reticular, elastic
what is seen in ground substance?
glycoaminoglycans, proteoglycans, multiadhesive glycoproteins
what are the five types of connective tissue proper?
loose, reticular, dense regular, dense irregular, adipose
what are the two types of specialized connective tissue?
blood, supporting connective tissue (cartilage and bone)
what are the layers of the dermis 2
papillary layer: superficial; areolar connective tissue reticular layer: deep; dense irregular connective tissue with more collagen
what is the superficial fascia primarily composed of?
AKA hypodermis. white adipose tissue and loose connective tissue
what is the deep fascia primarily composed of
dense irregular connective tissue
what are these layers
top: slanted arrow is nothing
epidermis and dermis
what are these layers?
1. papilary layer
2. reticular layer
(epidermis included both the regions above the papillary layer, keratinized surface and lower stratified squamous eptihelaial layer
what is these
4. white adipose in hypodermis