Flashcards in Foundations 1 Test Misc Week 3-4 Deck (143)
when is beta-oxidation triggered?
fasting, exercise, after a fat rich meal
What is ketogensis? where does it occur? when does it occur?
production of ketone bodies that occurs in the liver when there are high levels of acetyl-CoA
which type of epithelium can be ciliated?
pseudostratified (located in airways)
which type of epithelium can contain micro-villi?
simple columnar (located in GI tract)
eccrine sweat glands are what type of gland?
simple coiled tubular gland
mucous secretions of intestinal glands are what type of gland?
simple tubular glands (multicellular), also contain unicellular goblet cells
the exocrine pancreas is what type of gland?
which type of medical imaging gives you the best tissue contrast?
which medical imaging technique(s) us X-rays?
radiography and CT
which medical imaging technique gives the worst resolution
Nuclear medicine (used to view anatomy and physiology in real time with gamma rays)
which imaging technique has many artifacts?
which imaging technique uses radiofrequency waves
what is ECM composed of?
Ground substance (glycoproteins, glycoaminoglycans) and protein fibers (collagen)
what are the layers of integument from keratin to muscle?
keratin-->epidermis (stratified squamous)-->dermis (connective tissue)-->hypodermis/subQ/superficial fascia (fat, blood, nerves)-->deep fascia-->muscle
incidence vs prevelence
incidence: number of new cases
prevalence: total number of cases
what is incidence rate?
IR=incidence/sum of DISEASE FREE person time
what are the essential AA?
PVT TIM HLL
Phe, Val, Tyr, Thre, Ile, Met, His, Lys, Leu
A positive nitrogen balance is seen in what two cases?
Pregnancy and growth
what is PKU? cause? signs?
A decrease in Tyr production due to Phe hydroxylase defici (Phe-->Tyr) or lack of Phe Hydroxylase cofactor (tetrahydrobiopterin). Tyr becomes essential and neuro-toxic Phe metabolites accumulate. Mental retardation, musty body odor
Cachexia: cause? seen in? treatment?
excessive protein and AA (Gln) degradation (negative nitrogen balance). seen in cancer and burns. Treatment: steroids, Gln supplement
Complete: maintain growth and life
Partially Complete: maintain life not growth
Incomplete: not maintain life
what is the sparing effect?
some nutrients can spare other nutrients from being used. Carbs spare protein use, Tyr spares Phe use, Cys spares Met use
Homocystinuria: what is it? causes?
accumulation of homocysteine due to a mutation in cystathionine synthase (homocysteine-->cystathionine).Homocysteine disrupts collagen cross-linking causing strokes and heart attacks, Cys becomes essential
Acute Lymphatic Leukemia: cause? treatment?
Asn-synthase deficiency in WBCs (Asp-x->Asn). L-Asparaginase (Asn-->Asp) is used to treat and starve these cells of dietary Asn
what does the biological value of a protein tell you?
how much dietary protein is retained in the body (accounts for protein lost in urine and feces)
what is the best measure of the completeness of a protein?
PDCAAS (protein digestibility corrected AA score): compares the amount of AA in each protein to the requirements for a 2-5 year old
what are the three dietary lipids
(sterols, phospholipids, glycerides)
what is a reason a nutrient (biotin/B7) would not have a RDA? what do you do if this is the case?
insufficient research. go by Adequate intake levels
what is the RDA?
intake of food fro a group (men/women/age) that meets 97.5% of the needs of individuals within that group