Foundations 1 Test Misc Week 3-4 Flashcards Preview

Foundations 1 > Foundations 1 Test Misc Week 3-4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Foundations 1 Test Misc Week 3-4 Deck (143)
Loading flashcards...
1

when is beta-oxidation triggered?

fasting, exercise, after a fat rich meal

2

What is ketogensis? where does it occur? when does it occur?

production of ketone bodies that occurs in the liver when there are high levels of acetyl-CoA

3

which type of epithelium can be ciliated?

pseudostratified (located in airways)

4

which type of epithelium can contain micro-villi?

simple columnar (located in GI tract)

5

eccrine sweat glands are what type of gland?

simple coiled tubular gland

6

mucous secretions of intestinal glands are what type of gland?

simple tubular glands (multicellular), also contain unicellular goblet cells

7

the exocrine pancreas is what type of gland?

compound acinar

8

which type of medical imaging gives you the best tissue contrast?

MRI

9

which medical imaging technique(s) us X-rays?

radiography and CT

10

which medical imaging technique gives the worst resolution

Nuclear medicine (used to view anatomy and physiology in real time with gamma rays)

11

which imaging technique has many artifacts?

Ultra sound

12

which imaging technique uses radiofrequency waves

MRI

13

what is ECM composed of?

Ground substance (glycoproteins, glycoaminoglycans) and protein fibers (collagen)

14

what are the layers of integument from keratin to muscle?

keratin-->epidermis (stratified squamous)-->dermis (connective tissue)-->hypodermis/subQ/superficial fascia (fat, blood, nerves)-->deep fascia-->muscle

15

incidence vs prevelence

incidence: number of new cases
prevalence: total number of cases

P=I*D

16

what is incidence rate?

IR=incidence/sum of DISEASE FREE person time

17

what are the essential AA?

PVT TIM HLL

Phe, Val, Tyr, Thre, Ile, Met, His, Lys, Leu

18

A positive nitrogen balance is seen in what two cases?

Pregnancy and growth

19

what is PKU? cause? signs?

A decrease in Tyr production due to Phe hydroxylase defici (Phe-->Tyr) or lack of Phe Hydroxylase cofactor (tetrahydrobiopterin). Tyr becomes essential and neuro-toxic Phe metabolites accumulate. Mental retardation, musty body odor

20

Cachexia: cause? seen in? treatment?

excessive protein and AA (Gln) degradation (negative nitrogen balance). seen in cancer and burns. Treatment: steroids, Gln supplement

21

Protein Quality

Complete: maintain growth and life
Partially Complete: maintain life not growth
Incomplete: not maintain life

22

what is the sparing effect?

some nutrients can spare other nutrients from being used. Carbs spare protein use, Tyr spares Phe use, Cys spares Met use

23

Homocystinuria: what is it? causes?

accumulation of homocysteine due to a mutation in cystathionine synthase (homocysteine-->cystathionine).Homocysteine disrupts collagen cross-linking causing strokes and heart attacks, Cys becomes essential

Note: Met-->homocysteine-->cystathionine-->cys

24

Acute Lymphatic Leukemia: cause? treatment?

Asn-synthase deficiency in WBCs (Asp-x->Asn). L-Asparaginase (Asn-->Asp) is used to treat and starve these cells of dietary Asn

25

what does the biological value of a protein tell you?

how much dietary protein is retained in the body (accounts for protein lost in urine and feces)

26

what is the best measure of the completeness of a protein?

PDCAAS (protein digestibility corrected AA score): compares the amount of AA in each protein to the requirements for a 2-5 year old

27

what are the three dietary lipids

(sterols, phospholipids, glycerides)

28

what is a reason a nutrient (biotin/B7) would not have a RDA? what do you do if this is the case?

insufficient research. go by Adequate intake levels

29

what is the RDA?

intake of food fro a group (men/women/age) that meets 97.5% of the needs of individuals within that group

30

what is DRI?

dietary requirements (EAR, tolerable upper level, adequate intake) with a goal of preventing nutrient defficeincies and preventing over-nutrition

Decks in Foundations 1 Class (65):