Week 2 Pharmodynamics Module Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 2 Pharmodynamics Module Deck (48):
1

define pharmodynamics

what a drug does to the body

2

define pharmokinetics

what the body does to a drug

3

what is a drug?

an exogenous chemical compound that effects a biochemical or physiological function in a specific way

4

define receptor

a sensing element in a chemical communication system that coordinates the function of different cells in the body

5

define inert binding site

an endogenous molecule that binds to a drug but does not lead to a response (ex drugs commonly bind with albumin, and that binding does not cause any physiologic effects)

6

give an example of a drug that inhibits an enzyme

Statin: inhibits HMGCoA Reductase which decreases intra-hepatic cholesterol synthesis

7

give an example of a drug that acts on a transport protein

Digitalis: inhibits Na/K ATPase

8

give an example of a drug that acts on a structural protein

Colchicine: binds tubuline

9

what are the four families of receptors. which are membrane receptors?

ligand-gated ion channels: membrane G protein coupled receptors: membrane Enzyme-linked receptors: membrane Intracellular receptros: not in the membrane (ligand is hydrophobic)

10

what are three prototypes of statin?

simvastatin, lovastatin, atorvastatin

11

what do glucocorticoid drugs do?

anti-inflammatory agents

12

what are three prototypes of glucocorticoids?

dexamethasone, prednisone, hydrocortisone

13

Drug affinity is directly proportional to what two factors?

bond strength and structural conformation

14

what is an agonist?

substance that activates receptors. has affinity for receptor and intrinsic activity

15

what is an antagonist

substance that prevents receptor activation. affinity for receptor but no intrinsic activity

16

what is othrosteric binding of drugs

drug binds to active site

17

what is allosteric binding of drugs

drug binds at a site other than the active site

18

what is a full agonist?

produces 100% activation of a receptor at high concentrations

19

what is a partial agonist

binding results in less than 100% activation even at very high concentrations

20

what is an inverse agonist

binding results in a response below the basal activity

21

what is a competitive antagonist. can they be overcome

binds to the same site as an agonist (reduce potency). overcome by increasing agonist concentration

22

what is a noncompetitive antagonist. how can they be overcome?

binds to a different site than the agonist. prevent the binding of agonist or prevent the agonist from activating the receptor. reduce efficacy. cant be overcome

23

define potency

amount of drug needed to reach a desired effect

24

define efficacy

max effect a drug can produce

25

what are physiological antagonists

opposing pathways that exist in the body

26

what are chemical antagonists

receptors are not involved, activity based on chemical interactions

27

what is selectivity

the degree to which a drug or chemical has an affinity for a particular type of receptor

28

what is favorable about highly selective drugs?

they produce the intended or desired effect with minimal side effects

29

give an example of a selective drug

some beta blockers selectively block Beta 1 receptors in the heart but not beta 2 receptors in the lungs

30

a drug is selective if...

the drug interacts with only one type of receptor, and if that receptor type regulates just a few processes

31

a drug is non-selective if...(2 options)

if a drug interacts with one receptor but that receptor regulates multiple processes. OR if a drug interacts with multiple receptors.

32

which drugs are completely selective

none. increasing does of any drug will lead to side effects.

33

does selectivity guarantee drug safety?

no. too much of a drug can still have a negative effect

34

what is a graded dose-response curve? what can it tell you?

a curve that shows how different concentrations of a drug impact its effects. it can be used tom compare potency and efficacy of different drugs

35

what is Emax?

the maximal response or effect. biggest response a drug can produce

36

what is EC50

the concentration of the drug producing 50% of the maximal effect (Emax)

37

what to quantal dose-response curves show?

these curves tell you how drugs effect the general population. Give you ED50, TD50, LD50

38

what is ED50

the effective dose in which the desired effects are seen in 50% of people

39

what is TD50

the toxic dose for 50% of popn

40

what is LD50

the lethal dose for 50% of people

41

how do you calculate therapeutic index? TI

TI=TD50/ED50

42

how do you calculate the margin of safety?

MS=LD1/ED99

43

when is it ok to use a drug with a narrow therapeutic window (small TI)

only when no other therapeutic options exist. routine monitoring of drug levels is necessary

44

a wide therapeutic window has what TI?

large TI

45

what is this?

Q image thumb

Quantal dose response curve

46

what is this?

Q image thumb

graded dose response curve

47

give an example of a non-slective beta blocker?

propanolol and sotolol

48

what are examples of selective beta blockers

atenolol, metoprolol, esmolol

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