Week 3 Nutrition and Obesity Lecture Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 3 Nutrition and Obesity Lecture Deck (31):
1

what two factors primarily contribute to obesity?

genetics and lifestyle (diet, exercise, sleep)

2

what BMI range is overweight?

25-29.9

3

what BMI range is obese?

>30

4

how do you calculate BMI?(2)

BMI=kg/m^2 OR BMI=(lb x 703)/in^2

5

a high MBI has been correlated to increased risk for which diseases?3

hypertension, cardiovascular disease, sleep apnea...

6

as BMI increases, standard mortality rates__

increase

7

how do you determine waist to hip ratio?

WHR=waist circumference/hip circumference

8

what is a healthy WHR for men? women?

men: 0.9
women: 0.8

9

what is an "at risk" hip ratio?

greater than or equal to 1

10

what has been better correlated to incidence of myocardial infarction, BMI or WHR?

WHR

11

describe the adipocytes of an overweight person?

adipocytes are larger and more numerous

12

describe the adipocytes of a average sized person who was once overweight

adipocytes are smaller but still more numerous. in a person that loses weight, adipocyte size decreases but number stays the same

13

scientists have discovered how many loci involved in mendelian forms of obesity? how may loci are contributing?

9 involved, 58 contributing

14

does a genetic predisposition to obesity mean you will be fat?

no. lifestyle changes can overcome genetics in most cases

15

what is the set-point theory?

your body has a functionally optimal weight range that it tries to maintain by influencing appetite

16

what is satiety?

feeling full

17

Leptin: secreted by, role2? long/short term factor

secreted: adipocytes

stimulates hypothalamus to reduce food intake and increase energy expenditure

long

18

leptin levels are increased/decreased with increased adipose tissue

increased

19

Ghrelin: secreted by? stimulates2? long/short term factor

secreted by stomach when you anticipate a meal

stimulates hypothalamus to release hormones and increase food intake

short

20

PYY: secreted by? role3? short or long term factor?

produced in ileum and colon

suppresses appetite, lowers food intake, slows passage of nutrient through gut

short

21

orexin: produced? role? 3

produced in lateral hypothalamus

increased food consumption, wakefulness and suppresses REM

22

your a fat person, which hormones (PYY, orexin, leptin, ghrelin) are good for weight loss?

leptin and pyy

23

how is sleep related to obesity?

decreased sleep increases the risk of obesity

24

what effect (on hormones) does a lack of sleep have?

decreases leptin, increases ghrelin

25

what are the weekly physcial activity guidelines for americans?

1 hr and 15 min each week of vigourous aerobic activity, 2 hr 30 min of moderate aerobic activity, muscle strenghtening atleast 2 x a week

26

exercise does not burn that many calories, so why is it so effective in weight loss?

lean body mass (built by exercise) increases basal metabolic rate which burns more calories than physical activity

27

why do our bodies not require carbs?

glucose and glycogen can be made from gluconeogenic sources

28

what was the atkins diet? did it work?

low carb, high protein, high fat diet. It worked in the short-term becuase our bodies were breaking down fats to make energy, but it was not helpful in sustained weight loss and actually led to some health issues correlated with high fat intake

29

why is high fructose corn syrup bad?

fructose bypasses normal regulatory mechanisms of glucose and is readily converted to excess fat. fructose is also more effieciently metabolized by the liver so less escapes into blood.

30

increased red meat has been correlated with...

some types of cancers

31

increased carbohydrates intake (except for simple carbs and high levels of added sugars) have been correlated with...

decreased obesity. abundance of simple carbs and high levels of added sugars increases obesity

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