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Flashcards in Week 5 Hypertrophy Deck (14)
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define hypertrophy

increase in cell size which often leads to a concurrent increase in organ size and/or fxn


what are the two clinical settings in which hypertrophy is encountered

increased fucntional demand, increased trophic factors


a morbidly obese individual exercises and a year later is extremely fit/tone. Describe the changes in adipose and skeletal muscle that occurred

Fat: adipose was hypertrophied, skeletal muscle atrophy

Muscular: adipose atrophy, skeletal muscle hypertrophy


which relevant cell types do not divide? 2

skeletal and myocardial myocytes


when do we see cells/tissues/organs undergoing hypertrophy and proliferation

usually these go together UNLESS the cell does not divide; in which case we would only see hypertorphy


when do we see cells/tissues/organs undergoing atrophy and apoptosis?

usually these go together. Unless the cell type does not divide in which case we see atrophy without apoptosis


when exposed to trophic factors how do cells capable of proliferation respond? when factors withdrawn?

exposed: hyperplasia, hypertrophy

withdrawn: atrophy, apoptosis


how will a hypertrophic tissue appear when compared to a normal one?



how will hypertrophic cells appear when compared to normal cells?

larger, with a larger nucleus


what can cause hypertrophy of the heart?2

hypertension (pathological), exercise (physiological)


what are trophic factors

factors such as hormones that promote cell growth, proliferation


what is a gravid uterus

a pregnant uterus whose endometrium grows (hypertrophy and hyperplasia due to estrogen). Pear-->grapefruit-->papaya-->watermelon


how do anabolic steroids work?

activate TFs that stimulate fetal gene expression of contractile proteins and increase their synthesis (leads to hypertrophy and increased muscle mass)


stretch receptors and binding of GFs to cardiac myocytes has what effect?

signal transduction that increases TFs for the re-induction of fetal genes (increased contractile proteins and increased GFs (autocrine effect))

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