Week 3 Measures of DIsease Module Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 3 Measures of DIsease Module Deck (20):
1

what is the problem with counts?

a count does not give you a denominator, does not relate to the total population

2

when is a count useful?

resources need to be allocated to treat/follow disease

3

what is a ratio?

compares relative size of two values. ex: boys/girls at birth

4

what is a proportion?

a ratio in which the numerator is a subset of the denominator. Ex: proportion of boys: (boys/(boys+girls))

5

a medical school has a class with 60 males and 40 females. what is the proportion male? ratio of females/males

proportion male: 60/100

ratio of females/males: 60/40

6

what is a rate?

a ratio that takes the from a/a+b during some period of time

7

epidemiologic rates contain (3)

count of disease frequency, size of the popn at risk, time period during which the disease occurred in the reference population

8

what is a fixed population

membership is permanent and define by an event/charactestic. the number doesn't change. ex: babies born at Wexner in 2012

9

what is a dynamic population?

membership is changing. citizens of monroe county

10

what are the two most important measures of disease frequency?

incidence and prevelance

11

Incidence:

number of new cases over a period of time.

12

cumulative incidence:

number of new cases/# at risk at beginning of follow-up over a specified period of time. assumes popn are fixed (flaw)

13

what is the incidence rate (density)

# of new cases/ sum of disease-free person-time over a specified period (alllows populations to be dynamic)

14

how do you calculate person-years 3

add the individual risk periods (exact, count up number of years total), use the average number of people in study x the study duration, use the average duration x number of people

15

prevelance

the proportion of people in a popn with the disease a a specified point or period in time. measures existing cases

16

point prevelance

number of existing cases/total population at a specified point in time

17

period prevelance

(number existing cases+number of cases that occur during the interval)/population at midpoint of interval

18

what is the value of prevalence?

helps describe the current health burden of a particular disease

19

what is the relationship between prevalence and incidence

prevalence is similar to incidence*duration of disease. P=I*D

20

do epitemiologists prefer incidence or prevelance?

incidence: eliminates factors such as survival rates and possible risk factors

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