what are glandular cells/glands: fxn? types (2)? multi/unicellular?
function in secretion types: exocrine or endocrine can be unicellular or multicellular
exocrine glands: secrete where? on what surface of epithelial cell?
secrete into ducts! secretions released on apical surface
are the ducts in which exocrine glands secrete just passive tubes?
no, they add/modify/concentrate/remove substances coming for exocrine glands
Endocrine glands: secrete where? on what surface of the epithelial cell? give an exam of an endocrine secretion
secrete directly through blood stream. secreted on basal surface of epithelial cell. Hormones!
what are paracrine secretions?
substance is released directly onto cells within the same epithelial surface (not a type of gland, a type of secretion)
what are the three modes of exocrine secretions?
merocrine, apocrine, holocrine
what are merocrine secretions?
most common form of exocrine secretion. vessicles filled with secretion bind the apical membrane and release their products
what are apocrine secretions?
budding of the product from the apical surface of the cell (surrounded by a piece of membrane)
what are holocrine secretions?
cell dies and ruptures to secrete its products
what are two types of exocrine secretions?
serous secretions, mucous secretions
describe serous secretions:
thin and watery with proteins that are NOT glycosylated
describe mucous secretions
viscous and slimy due to glycosylation
how do mucous secretions appear in a H&E stain?
cytoplasm will appear empty
what is the only major human unicellular gland?
what goblet cells secrete?
mucins, a key component of protective mucus
what are the type of exocrine glands?
ducts can be simple (unbranched) or compound (branched duct). Secretory portion can be tubular, alveolar/acinar, or tubuloalveolar
eccrine sweat glands are what type of multicellular gland?
simple coiled tubular
intestinal glands are what type of multicellular gland?
simple tubular glands
what type of glands are the exocrine glands of the pancreas? what type of secretion?
multicellular, compound acinar, serous-secretions
compare the endocrine pancreas to the exocrine pancreas
endocrine: formed of islets of langerhans that secrete hormones such as insulin and glucagon exocrine; compound acinar cells cells that produce a serous secretion of digestive enzymes
defects of the endocrine pancreas lead to...
diabetes: inability to regulate blood sugar
defects of the exocrine pancreas leads to...
pancreatic insufficiency (we saw this in CF!)
what type of secretions do intestinal glands secrete?
what type of secretion is seen here?
mucus secretions. not the large clear sections
what type of exocrine gland is seen in this picture? what type of cells? what type of secretions?
unicellular exocrine gland, goblet cells (circled in blue), mucus secretions
orange arrow? black arrow?
orange: secretory vesicles filled with mucus (do not stain)
black: goblet cells
from left to right, what are the modes of exocrine secretion?
merocrine, apocrine, holocrine
what type of glands? (top to bottom)
multicellular simple exocrine glands: simple tubular, simple coiled tubular, simple branched tubular, simple acinar
what type of glands (top to bottom)
multicellular compound exocrine.