Week 3 Fuel Homeostasis Module Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 3 Fuel Homeostasis Module Deck (28):
1

1 Calorie=

1000 calories; 1 kcal; 4,180 J; 4.18 kJ

2

what is direct calorimetry?

the heat released from hte total physical combustion of a food

3

rank the following macromolecules in terms of energy released when burned

Fat>Carbs=Proteins

4

why does fat release more energy than carbs or porteins when burned

fats are highly reduced (all C-H bonds). this means their complete oxidation will release more total energy

5

which macromolecule is the most efficient fuel in terms of calories produced/amount of O2 consumed?

carbohydrates

6

what is indirect calorimetry?

estimates caloric yield by measuring the oxygen consumed, CO2 produced and nitrogen eliminated

7

how do you calculate the amount of protein in the body from nitrogen elimination?

16% of protein is nitrogen, multiply the nitrogen excreted by 6.25

8

what is a calorie?

energy needed to raise temperature of one gram of water from 15 to 16DC

9

what is the respiratory quotient

the ratio of the volume of CO2 produced: volume of O2 utilized

10

what is the value of RQ for carbs, protein, fat?

Carbs: 1
protein: .8
fat: .7

11

what will RQ values tell us about feul usage?

the closer the RQ values is to the RQ of a certain fuel source (carbs, protein, fats) the more that fuel source is being used.

12

Ex; if a runner has an RQ of 0.97 at the beginning of a race and then 0.79 towards the end of the race what can be said about his fuel source?

at the start carbs were a major fuel source, towards the end he was using lipids (proteins generally only come into play during starvation)

13

what explains how blood glucose levels are maintained druing exercise?

gluconeogenesis is occuring as well as tapping into glycogen stores

14

As exercise duration progresses from 0 to greater than two hours, what is the change seen in where our bodies are getting energy?

glycogen in skeletal muscle is used first-->glycogen within the liver is used-->fatty acids are oxidized

15

what occurs after glycogen stores are depleted and gluconeogenesis is stopped?

the brain shuts down because glucose is its only form of energy

16

what is energy density?

the amount of energy in a gram of a food item

17

in what three ways do our bodies expend energy?

thermic effect of food energy needed to process food), physical activity (energy needed to move), basal metabolism (energy needed for basic life functions)

18

what percent of out energy goes to basal metabolism?

50-70% (BIGGEST ENERGY EXPENDATURE OF BODY)

19

how is BMR (basal metabolic rate) related to body mass?

BMR is most closely related to lean body mass (muscle), as lean body mass increase the BMR increases

20

what is the BMR when asleep?

10% decrease

21

how much of out energy goes to processing of food (thermic effect of food):

10%

22

how much of our energy goes to physical activity

15-30%

23

what is the difference between resting metabolic rate and basal metabolic rate?

RMR is easier to measure, does not require fasting, and only requires a brief resting period

24

what is the resting energy expenditure?

the resting metabolic rat over 24 hours

25

what is the BMR of males? females?

males: BMR= 1.0 kcal/hour/kg
female: BMR=0.9 kcal/hour/kg

26

how does age, sex, growth, body weight, stress impact BMR

increased age decreases BMR, males have higher BMR, increased weight/height increases BMR, stress increases BMR

27

what is total energy expenditure?

the total (thermogenic effects of food+exercise+basal metabolism) energy used by the body

28

what are the steps for determining total caloric needs of the body?

1. calculate basal energy needs when awake: BMR (kcal/kg/hr)*weight*hours awake
2. calculate basal energy need when asleep: ten percent decrease in BMR*weight*hours asleep
3. calculate energy expenditure during exercise Xkcal/kg/hr*weight*time
4. calculate thermic effects of food: 10% caloric intake until this point
5. add them together

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