Flashcards in Week 5 Atrophy Module Deck (18)
what are the clinical settings of atrophy? 5
decreased functional demand, decreased oxygen supply, starvation, decreased trophic factors (denervation), persistent cell injury (pressure, inflammation, chronic disease)
what is atrophy
decrease in organ/cell size with decrease in cell/organ fxn
how can you discern a normal cell from an atrophic cell?
atrophic cells are surrounded by my ECM than normal cells
decreased oxygen supply to a tissue results from....
decreased blood flow to tissue
ischemia is often the result of ....
how do you discern a normal brain from an atrophic brain?
a normal brain will have an "angry cat" appearance and appear full. an atrophied brain has a "jowly appearance" and have enlarged venticles, and shrunken frontal lobe
how do skeletal muscles become atrophied from starvation?
carbs are utilized first, then fat, then muscle protein is degraded. w/o proper nutrition the muscle are degraded
when do we typically see decreased trophic stimulation in skeletal muscle?
when a nerve to a skeletal muscle is lost (denervation)
what is a theme seen in atrophy regarding surrounding tissues/cells?
when one cell type is atrophied, surrounding cell types will hypertrophy to compensate (seen in a hypoxic kidney [other kidney will hypertrophy] and muscle cells that are denervated [muscle cells that are still attached to nerves will hypertrophy])
what results in the endometrium during menopause?
loss of insulin (trophic) causes atrophy and apoptosis of endometrial cells
what is Hydrocephalus?
increase cerebral spinal fluid and increased pressure within the brain
what results in the brain as a result of hydrocephalus?
brain atrophy (unhappy looking CT)
What are Decubitus ulcers? what causes them?
bedsores caused by chronic pressure that induces atrophy and apoptosis of the skin
what is gastritits? what is it an ideal example of?
inflammation of the stomach lining. ideal example of how chronic inflammation causes atrophy (and apoptosis).
Cachexia is an ideal example of what?
how chronic disease (TB, AIDS, cancer) can lead to atrophy. results in a negative protein balance due to HIGH protein turnover
what causes cancer cachexia?
elevated cytokines that induce protein degradation (proteasome and autophagy)
give an example of a protein that may be increased in atrophic cells?