1B: Transmission of genetic information from the gene to the protein Flashcards Preview

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1

Nucleotides

Monomers of nucleic acids, consists of sugar, nitrogenous base and phosphate group

2

Types of Nucleotides

Thymine, Adenine, Guanine, Uracil

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Structure of Nucleotides

Phosphorus is linked at the 5 carbon of the sugar; Nitrogenous Base is linked to the 1 carbon of the sugar

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Pyrimidines

Single ring; Cytosine, Uracil, Thymine

5

Purines

Two rings; Adenine, Guanine

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Nucleoside

Sugar + Nitrogenous Base

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Types of Nucleosides

Cytidine, Uridine, Adenosine

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

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Double Helix

2 single strands of DNA wound around each other held together by hydrogen bonds

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Watson-Crick Model

Two linear strands running antiparallel and twisted in a right-handed spiral; bases are located inside of the helix

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Base Pairing Specificity

Nucleobases are connected via hydrogen bonds:
A2T
C3G
DNA with more G-C are more stable

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Function of DNA in transmission of Genetic Information

Complementary base pairing property allows for DNA replication and transmission of genetic information

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Central Dogma

DNA -> RNA -> Protein

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Denaturation of DNA

dsDNA comes apart due to heating or a change in pH

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Annealing of DNA

ssDNA joins again due to complementary nucleotide sequences and random molecular motion

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Hybridization of DNA

Denatures two different DNA sequences then uses ssDNA from each to anneal to dsdna

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Process of PCR

Denature -> Anneal -> Extend

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Mechanism of Replication

1. Separation of Strands
2. Coupling of Free Nucleic Acids

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Enzymes of Replication

1. DNA Gyrase
2. Helicase
-SSB
3. Primase
4. DNA Pol III
5. DNA Pol I
6. DNA Ligase

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Helicase

Unwinds double helix of DNA

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DNA Pol III

Binds one strand of DNA from an RNA primer, moves 3' to 5' producing a leading strand

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Primase

Produces RNA primers at the 5' end, allowing for the synthesis of Okazaki fragments

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Okazaki Fragments

Short discontinued fragments of replication products on the lagging strand

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DNA Pol I

Removes RNA primers by the 5' end to 3' end

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DNA Ligase

Seals the spaces in the strand between the Okazaki Fragments

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Single-Strand Binding Protein

Responsible for keeping the DNA unwound after helicase unwinds the helix

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DNA Gyrase

Uncoils DNA ahead of the replication fork

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Semi-conservative nature of replication

Each DNA helix contains one parent strand and one new strand; older DNA has more methyl groups added so its always possible to determine which strand is older

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Origin of Replication

Point at which replication begins; multiple points in eukaryotes and singular in prokaryotes

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Telomerase

Replicates the end of DNA molecules which consist of telomeres that help keep genetic information and prevent it from being lost during replication