Data-Based and Statistical Reasoning Flashcards Preview

MCAT > Data-Based and Statistical Reasoning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Data-Based and Statistical Reasoning Deck (35):
1

Measurements of Central Tendency

Provide a single value representation for the middle of a group of data (mean, median, mode)

2

Measurements of Central Tendency

Provide a single value representation for the middle of a group of data (mean, median, mode)

3

Measures of Central Tendency

Provide a single value representation for the middle of a group of data (mean, median, mode)

4

Measures of Central Tendency

Provide a single value representation for the middle of a group of data

5

Arithmetic Mean (Average)

A measure that equally weighs all values; it's most affected by outliers

6

Median

The value that lies in the middle of the data set; 50% of the data points are above and below the median

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Median

The value that lies in the middle of the data set; 50% of the data points are above and below the median

8

Mode

The data point that appears most often; there may be multiple, or zero, modes in a data set

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Mode

The data point that appears most often; there may be multiple, or zero, modes in a data set

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Range

The difference between the smallest and largest number in a sample

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Distribution

Classified by measures of central tendency and measures of distribution; it has a particular shape

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Distribution

Classified by measures of central tendency and measures of distribution; it has a particular shape

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Normal Distribution

Symmetrical, mean, median and mode are the same

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Standard Normal Distribution

Normal distribution with a mean of zero and standard deviation of 1

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Skewed Distribution

Have differences in their mean, median and mode; skew is in the direction of the tail

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Bimodal Distribution

Multiple peaks; it may be useful to perform data analysis on the two groups separately

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Bimodal Distribution

Multiple peaks; it may be useful to perform data analysis on the two groups separately

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Measures of Distribution

Range
Interquartile Range
Standard Deviation
Outliers

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Interquartile Range

Difference between the value of the third quartile and the first quartile

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Interquartile Range

Difference between the value of the third quartile and the first quartile

21

Standard Deviation

Measurement of the variability about the mean; it is used to calculate how much the data varies

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Standard Deviation

Measurement of the variability about the mean; it is used to calculate how much the data varies

23

Outliers

A result of true population variability, measurement error or non-normal distribution

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Outliers

A result of true population variability, measurement error or non-normal distribution

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Probability of Independent Events

Does not change based on the outcomes of other events

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Probability of Dependent Events

Does change depending on the outcomes of other events

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Mutually Exclusive Outcomes

Cannot occur simultaneously

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Mutually Exclusive Outcomes

Cannot occur simultaneously

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Hypothesis Tests

Use a known distribution to determine whether a hypothesis of difference (the null hypothesis) can be rejected

30

Hypothesis Tests

Use a known distribution to determine whether a hypothesis of difference (the null hypothesis) can be rejected

31

Null Hypothesis

States that two populations are equal or that a single population can be described by parameter equal to a given value

32

Correlation

Expresses a relationship between two sets of data using a single number

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Positive Correlation

Indicates a positive association between the two variables; that is, when one variable increases the other also tends to increase as well

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Negative Correlation

Indicates a negative association between the two variables; that is, when one increases the other tends to decrease or vice versa

35

Correlation does not imply causation

Conclusions cannot be drawn about behavioral problems based on correlation