2B: The Structure, growth, physiology and genetics of prokaryotes & viruses Flashcards Preview

MCAT > 2B: The Structure, growth, physiology and genetics of prokaryotes & viruses > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2B: The Structure, growth, physiology and genetics of prokaryotes & viruses Deck (95)
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1

What are the 4 tenets of Cell Theory?

1. All living things are composed of cells
2. The cell is the basic functional unit of life
3. All cells arise ONLY from preexisting cells
4. Cells carry genetic information in the form of DNA

2

How do viruses violate cell theory?

They do not arise from preexisting cells and they do not carry genetic information the form of DNA

3

List the 7 organelles in eukaryotic cells:
N M R
L P S
G

Nucleus, Mitochondria, Lysosome, Rough E.R., Smooth E.R., Golgi Apparatus, Peroxisome

4

What surrounds the nucleus and what is that structures function?

Nuclear envelope, it has nuclear pores that allow selective 2 way exchange of material

5

What does the nucleus contain and what is that structures function?

Nucleolus, synthesizes ribosomal RNA

6

What is the function of the nucleus? What processes occur here?

To contain and protect DNA; DNA replication, transcription and partial RNA assembly

7

What is the function of mitochondria?

Produce ATP via Krebs Cycle & Oxidative Phosphorylation

8

List the structures of the mitochondria.

Outer Membrane
Intermembrane Space
Inner Membrane
Matrix

9

What is the function of cristae?

Increase surface area available for electron transport chain

10

What enzymes are contained in the mitochondrial matrix?

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
Citric Acid Cycle enzymes

11

What lines the inner mitochondrial membrane?

Electron Transport Chain & ATP Synthase

12

Describe the DNA in Mitochondria.

Single circular DNA molecule that encodes rRNA, tRNA and several mitochondrial proteins

13

What is the endosymbiotic theory?

That mitochondria originated as independent unicellular organisms living within larger cell

14

What is special about the DNA of Mitochondria?

It's inherited only from the mother because the ovum supplies the organelles

15

How do mitochondria replicate?

Binary Fission

16

What process can mitochondria participate in?

Apoptosis

17

What is the function of the lysosome?

Degrades biomolecules through hydrolysis

18

What do lysosomes use to degrade molecules? When are they active?

Hydrolytic enzymes; active in only low pH environments

19

What is autophagy?

Lysosome degrades non-functional or damaged self-organelles

20

What is the Rough E.R.? What is it responsible for?

The part of the ER that contains ribosomes; it synthesizes proteins that are secreted extracellularly or plasma membrane proteins

21

What is the Smooth E.R.? What is it responsible for?

The part of the ER that lack ribosomes; responsible for lipid synthesis and detoxification of certain compounds

22

What is the function of the Golgi Apparatus?

It receives cellular products (proteins) and modifies them; sort and sends those proteins to their cellular destination; performs exocytosis

23

How does the golgi apparatus modify proteins?

Glycosylation, Phosphorylation, Sulfonation

24

What is the cis vs. trans face of the golgi?

Cis face is closer to the ER and Trans face is farthest from the ER

25

What is the function of peroxisomes?

They contain hydrogen peroxide which aid in metabolizing lipids and toxins (in the liver); phospholipid synthesis

26

What enzyme do peroxisomes contain? What does that enzyme do?

Catalase; converts H2O2 into H2O and O2

27

What is the function of the cytoskeleton? What is it composed of?

Provide structure to the cells and helps maintain cell shape; it's composed of microfilaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments

28

What are microfilaments composed of? Are they thick or thin?

Polymerized rods of actin; thin

29

What is the function of microfilaments?

Use ATP to generate force for movement; forms the cleavage furrow in cytokinesis

30

What are the kinds of actin? Which is a monomer or polymer?

Filamentous Actin (F-Actin) [polymer]
Globular Actin (G-Actin) [monomer]