2A (Organelles & Cytoskeleton) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2A (Organelles & Cytoskeleton) Deck (86)
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1

Eukaryote

Have a true membrane bound nucleus, contains membrane bound organelles and undergo mitotic as well as meiotic division

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Eukaryote

Have a true membrane bound nucleus, contains membrane bound organelles and undergo mitotic as well as meiotic division

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Nucleus

Contain and protect DNA, Site of DNA replication and transcription, contains the nucleolus which is the site of ribosome assembly; consists of heterochromatin and euchromatin

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Nuclear Heterochromatin

Sequestered to the periphery

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Nuclear Euchromatin

Dispersed throughout the nucleus

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Nuclear Envelope

Separates genetic content into a distinct compartment of the cell, isolating it from other organelles and cytoplasm

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Nuclear Pores

Allow certain molecules to migrate into and out of the nucleus

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Nuclear Pores

Allow certain molecules to migrate into and out of the nucleus

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Storage of Genetic Information

dsDNA, in chromosomes, telomeres that help special DNA Pol that maintain the end of linear chromosomes

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Nuclear Pores

Allow certain molecules to migrate into and out of the nucleus; large proteins cannot pass through and are excluded from the nuclear interior

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Storage of Genetic Information

dsDNA, in chromosomes, telomeres that help special DNA Pol that maintain the end of linear chromosomes

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Mitochondria

Site of OXPHOS, consists of a matrix, inner and outer membrane

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Mitochondrial Matrix

Interior of the mitochondria that contains PDH and CAC enzymes

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Inner Mitochondrial Membrane

Location of the Electron Transport Chain and ATP Synthase

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Cristae

Inner folds of the mitochondrial membrane that increase the surface area available for ETC

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Outer Mitochondrial Membrane

Contains large pores that allow free passage of small molecules

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Intermembrane Space

The space between the membranes

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Mitochondrial Genome

Contains its own genome that is much smaller than the regular cellular genomes; single circular DNA molecule, replicates through binary fission

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Mitochondrial Genome

Contains its own genome that is much smaller than the regular cellular genomes; single circular DNA molecule, replicates through binary fission; inherited from the mother (ovum contains organelles)

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Mitochondrial Genome

Contains its own genome that is much smaller than the regular cellular genomes; single circular DNA molecule, replicates through binary fission; inherited from the mother (ovum contains organelles)

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Lysosomes

Membrane bound organelles that are responsible for degradation; utilizes hydrolytic enzymes

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Lysosomes

Membrane-bound organelles that utilize hydrolytic enzymes to break down biomolecules and cellular debris; optimally active at an acidic pH

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Lysosomes

Membrane-bound organelles that utilize hydrolytic enzymes to break down biomolecules and cellular debris; optimally active at an acidic pH (pH = 5)

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Lysosomes

Membrane-bound organelles that utilize hydrolytic enzymes to break down biomolecules and cellular debris; optimally active at an acidic pH (pH = 5)

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Endoplasmic Reticulum

An interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs known as cisternae;

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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Contains a large number of ribosomes on the surface and are the site of protein synthesis, folding, modification and export

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RER Ribosomes

Attach to the cytosolic side of the rough ER and synthesize protein into the lumen

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RER Role in Biosynthesis

It secretes transmembrane proteins that have a signal sequence designating their need for secretion that recruits a signal recognition particle (RER); SRP is cleaved off in the lumen of the RER

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RER Role in Biosynthesis
[Transmembrane Proteins]

It secretes transmembrane proteins that have a signal sequence designating their need for secretion that recruits a signal recognition particle (RER); SRP is cleaved off in the lumen of the RER

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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Lacks ribosomes and contains enzymes that are involved in biosynthesis of lipids, steroids and metabolism of carbohydrates and drugs