1D: Principles of Bioenergetics & Fuel Molecule Metabolism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1D: Principles of Bioenergetics & Fuel Molecule Metabolism Deck (251)
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1

Endothermic Reactions

Require energy, nonspontaneous, positive heat flow (absorbed = feels cold), increase enthalpy, breaking chemical bonds

2

Exothermic Reactions

Release energy, can be spontaneous, high entropy, negative heat flow (lost = feels hot), decrease enthalpy, form chemical bonds

3

Free Energy Equation

dG = dH - TdS

4

Standard Free Energy Equation

dG = -RTlnK

5

dG less than 1

K>1, favors products, spontaneous

6

dG equal to 0

K=1, at equilibrium

7

dG greater than 1

K

8

Nonspontaneous Reaction Criteria

+G = +H, -S
+G = +H, +S (low temp)
+G = -H, -S (high temp)

9

Spontaneous Reaction Criteria

-G = +H, +S (high temp)
-G = -H, +S
-G = -H, -S (low temp)

10

Spontaneous Reaction Criteria

-G = +H, +S (high temp)
-G = -H, +S
-G = -H, -S (low temp)

11

ATP Hydrolysis

ATP + H2O -> ADP + Pi
Exergonic (dG

12

ATP Group Transfer

When ATP is depleted during exercise, phosphate is transferred from phosphocreatine to ADP to replenish ATP

13

Oxidation Half Reaction

Loses electrons (uses solid)

14

Reduction Half Reaction

Gains electrons (produces solid)

15

Soluble Electron Carriers

Electrons transferred from one electron carrier to another; energy level decreases; energy is released

16

Ubiquinone (Q)

Lipid-soluble electron carrier; reduced to ubiquinol

17

Cytochrome c

Water-soluble electron carrier; contains Fe pigment

18

Quinone

Lipid-soluble carrier that shuttles electrons between large macromolecular complexes embedded in the membrane

19

Quinone

Lipid-soluble carrier that shuttles electrons between large macromolecular complexes embedded in the membrane

20

Flavoproteins

Derivatives of riboflavin; FAD and FMN; involves in bioluminescence, photosynthesis, DNA repair, apoptosis

21

Electron Transfer Flavoprotein

Function as a specific electron acceptor for primary dehydrogenases

22

Carbohydrate Formula

(CH2O)n; deoxy = hydrogen replacing -OH

23

Aldose

Sugar with an aldehyde group

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Ketose

Sugar with a ketone group

25

Pyranose

Hexagonal ring

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Furanose

Pentagonal ring

27

Common Sugars

Glucose, Galactose, Fructose

28

Absolute Configuration

D/L = based on chirality of the carbon atom furthest from the carbonyl group

Alpha/Beta = anomeric configuration

29

Alpha Anomer

Oxygens are cis to each other

30

Beta Anomer

Oxygens are trans to each other