6C: Responding to the world Flashcards Preview

MCAT > 6C: Responding to the world > Flashcards

Flashcards in 6C: Responding to the world Deck (63):
1

What are the three components of emotion?

Physiological, Behavioral and Cognitive

2

What is the physiological component of emotion?

When a feeling is first experienced, arousal is stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system

3

What is the behavioral component of emotion?

This includes facial expressions, body language, motor responses

4

What is the cognitive component of emotion?

The interpretation of the feeling being experienced is subjective to each individual, it is based on past experiences and perception of the cause of emotion

5

What are the universal emotions?

Fear,
Anger,
Happiness,
Surprise,
Disgust,
Contempt,
Sadness,
Joy

6

Describe the adaptive role of emotion.

Emotions are thought to be evolutionary adaptations due to situations encountered over the history of human species that guide sensory processing, physiological response and behavior

7

What are the 3 principles of the adaptive role of emotion?

1. Principle of serviceable habits
2. Antithesis
3. Expressive habits

8

What are the names of the 3 theories of emotion?

1. James-Lange
2. Cannon-Bard
3. Schachter-Singer

9

Describe James-Lange Theory

This theory states that emotion is a result of physiological reactions to different events around us; stimulus results in physiological arousal which leads to a secondary response in which emotion is labeled
"I feel afraid because I tremble"

10

Stimulus -> Arousal -> Conscious Emotion

James-Lange Theory

11

Describe Cannon-Bard Theory

This theory states that physiological responses and expression of emotion occurs simultaneously; it predicts that a person will respond with action after experiencing emotion mentally and physically
"The dog makes me tremble and feel afraid"

12

Stimulus -> Arousal + Conscious Emotion

Cannon-Bard Theory

13

Describe Schachter-Singer Theory

This states that both arousal and the labeling of arousal based on environment must occur in order for an emotion to be experienced;
"I label my trembling as fear because I appraise the situation as dangerous"

14

Stimulus -> Arousal + Cognitive Appraisal -> Conscious Emotion

Schachter-Singer

15

What is the limbic system?

It is a neural circuit that resides below the cerebrum on either side of the thalamus that plays a large role in motivation and emotion

16

What are the structures of the limbic system?

Amygdala
Hypothalamus
Thalamus
Hippocampus
Cingulate Gyrus
Prefrontal Cortex
Autonomic Nervous System

17

What is the function of the Amygdala?

Signals the cortex about stimuli related to attention and emotions, processes the environment by detecting external cues and learns from the persons surroundings in order to produce emotion, prepares for a fight-or-flight response

18

What is the function of the Hypothalamus?

To synthesize and release various neurotransmitters, serves a function in homeostasis as well as modulating emotion; it dictates emotional states

19

What is the function of the Thalamus?

Functions as a preliminary sensory processing station and routes information to the cortex and other appropriate areas of the brain

20

What is the function of the Hippocampus?

Primarily involved in creating long term memories;
In conjunction with the amygdala and hypothalamus it is involved in the storage and retrieval of emotional memories and producing emotional response;
Aids in creating context for stimuli to lead to an emotional experience;
Involved with explicit and implicit memory

21

What is explicit memory?

It is considered conscious memory and it is experiencing the actual emotion and produces a conscious memory of an experience

22

What is implicit memory?

It is the storage of the feelings of emotion associated with an event; determines expression of past emotions

23

What is the function of the Cingulate Gyrus?

Involved in pleasant memories from past emotions and emotion reaction from aggressive and painful behavior

24

What is the function of the prefrontal cortex?

It is involved in planning intricate cognitive functions and expressing personality and making decisions; coordinating arousal and cognitive states; suppresses emotions or sexual urges

25

Function of Left Prefrontal Cortex

Positive Emotion

26

Function of Right Prefrontal Cortex

Negative Emotion

27

Function of Dorsal Prefrontal Cortex

Attention & Cognition

28

Function of Ventral Prefrontal Cortex

Emotional Experience

29

Function of Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex

Decision-making & Emotional Responses

30

Characteristics of the ANS

Part of the PNS, divided into two systems, located in the medulla oblongata and regulated by the hypothalamus

31

What is the function of the ANS

Physiological reactions associated with specific emotions; skin temperatures, HR, BR and BP

32

Parasympathetic Nervous System

Rest & Digest Response
-Increase stomach activity
-Pupillary constriction
-Decreased blood flow to muscles
-Decreased HR and Respiration rate

33

Sympathetic Nervous System

Fight or Flight Response
-Releases epinephrine from adrenal glands
-Increases HR and Respiration rate
-Increases Blood Glucose & BP
-Pupillary dilation
-Slows digestive activity

34

What is the galvanic skin response?

It measures emotion, the autonomic response includes BP, HR, RR and Muscle Tension

35

What is Appraisal?

It is the subjective evaluation of a situation that induces stress

36

What are the stages of appraisal?

Primary & Secondary Appraisal

37

Primary Appraisal is

the initial examination which results in identification of stress as irrelevant, benign-positive or stressful

38

Secondary Appraisal is

an evaluation of one's ability to cope with stress; it involves evaluation of harm, threat and the challenge

39

What are the categories of stressors?

Eustress = result of positive conditions
Distress = occurs when experiencing unpleasant stressors

40

What are the types of stressors?

Environmental (temperature, overcrowded)
Daily Stress Events (traffic, sleep problems)
Life Changes (having children, getting married)
Workplace (workload, conflicts with coworkers)
Chemical (tobacco, alcohol, diet, allergies)
Social (conflict with spouses, partners etc)

41

What are the psychological stressors?

Pressure, Control, Predictability, Frustration & Conflict

42

What does pressure produce?

Feeling of urgency to complete tasks

43

What does control produce?

Reduced stress levels if one is in control of their surroundings and increased stress levels if one cannot control their stress levels

44

What does predictability produce?

It reduces stress levels if the daily scenario can be predicted

45

What does frustration produce?

It increases stress levels when attaining a goal or need is prevented

46

What are conflict stressors?

Stressors that arise from the need to make a choice

47

What are the three kinds of conflict stressors?

Approach-Approach
Avoidance-Avoidance
Approach-Avoidance

48

Describe Approach-Approach conflicts

These result from the need to choose between two desirable options

49

Describe Avoidance-Avoidance conflicts

These result from the need to choose between two negative options

50

Describe Approach-Avoidance

These result when only one choice that has either positive or negative outcomes

51

How does stress effect psychological functions?

It causes depression, anxiety or PTSD

52

What are the physiological responses to stressors?

The body reacts via sympathetic nervous systems initiating increase in HR and decrease in digestion; all available energy being reserved for reacting to the stressful event

53

What are the sequences of responses in General Adaptation Syndrome?

Alarm
Resistance
Exhaustion

54

Describe the Alarm reaction

The body prepares itself to deal with stressors;

Hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary to secrete ACTH which stimulates production of cortisol;

Activates secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine

55

What is the function of cortisol?

Maintain the steady supply of blood sugar needed to respond to stressful events

56

Describe the Resistance reaction

The continuous release of hormones allows the sympathetic nervous system to remain engaged to fight the stressor;

57

Describe the Exhaustion reaction

When the body can no longer maintain an elevated response with sympathetic nervous system activity; there is an increased susceptibility to illnesses and medical conditions, anxiety, depression and poor judgments

58

Emotional Responses to Stress

They influence our mood and sense of well-being

Elevated stress levels can result in people feeling irritable, moody, tense, fearful and helpless & difficulty with concentration and memory

59

Behavioral Responses to Stress

Changes in daily activity, poor judgment, changing eating habits and irritability; these can include personal withdrawal, difficulties at work or school, substance use, aggression and suicide

60

What are the two types of coping strategies?

They are either problem focused or emotionally focused

61

What are problem focused strategies?

Working to overcome a stressor such as reaching out to family and friends for social support, confronting the issue head-on and creating/following a plan of problem-solving actions

62

What are emotionally focused strategies?

Strategies center on changing one's feelings about a stress - engaging in self control, distancing oneself from the issue, engaging in wishful thikning

63

What does stress management do?

It reduces stress levels through activities like exercise, meditation, diaphragmatic breathing and progressive muscle relaxation; spiritual practice also helps manage stress