Flashcards in 6C: Responding to the world Deck (63):
What are the three components of emotion?
Physiological, Behavioral and Cognitive
What is the physiological component of emotion?
When a feeling is first experienced, arousal is stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system
What is the behavioral component of emotion?
This includes facial expressions, body language, motor responses
What is the cognitive component of emotion?
The interpretation of the feeling being experienced is subjective to each individual, it is based on past experiences and perception of the cause of emotion
What are the universal emotions?
Describe the adaptive role of emotion.
Emotions are thought to be evolutionary adaptations due to situations encountered over the history of human species that guide sensory processing, physiological response and behavior
What are the 3 principles of the adaptive role of emotion?
1. Principle of serviceable habits
3. Expressive habits
What are the names of the 3 theories of emotion?
Describe James-Lange Theory
This theory states that emotion is a result of physiological reactions to different events around us; stimulus results in physiological arousal which leads to a secondary response in which emotion is labeled
"I feel afraid because I tremble"
Stimulus -> Arousal -> Conscious Emotion
Describe Cannon-Bard Theory
This theory states that physiological responses and expression of emotion occurs simultaneously; it predicts that a person will respond with action after experiencing emotion mentally and physically
"The dog makes me tremble and feel afraid"
Stimulus -> Arousal + Conscious Emotion
Describe Schachter-Singer Theory
This states that both arousal and the labeling of arousal based on environment must occur in order for an emotion to be experienced;
"I label my trembling as fear because I appraise the situation as dangerous"
Stimulus -> Arousal + Cognitive Appraisal -> Conscious Emotion
What is the limbic system?
It is a neural circuit that resides below the cerebrum on either side of the thalamus that plays a large role in motivation and emotion
What are the structures of the limbic system?
Autonomic Nervous System
What is the function of the Amygdala?
Signals the cortex about stimuli related to attention and emotions, processes the environment by detecting external cues and learns from the persons surroundings in order to produce emotion, prepares for a fight-or-flight response
What is the function of the Hypothalamus?
To synthesize and release various neurotransmitters, serves a function in homeostasis as well as modulating emotion; it dictates emotional states
What is the function of the Thalamus?
Functions as a preliminary sensory processing station and routes information to the cortex and other appropriate areas of the brain
What is the function of the Hippocampus?
Primarily involved in creating long term memories;
In conjunction with the amygdala and hypothalamus it is involved in the storage and retrieval of emotional memories and producing emotional response;
Aids in creating context for stimuli to lead to an emotional experience;
Involved with explicit and implicit memory
What is explicit memory?
It is considered conscious memory and it is experiencing the actual emotion and produces a conscious memory of an experience
What is implicit memory?
It is the storage of the feelings of emotion associated with an event; determines expression of past emotions
What is the function of the Cingulate Gyrus?
Involved in pleasant memories from past emotions and emotion reaction from aggressive and painful behavior
What is the function of the prefrontal cortex?
It is involved in planning intricate cognitive functions and expressing personality and making decisions; coordinating arousal and cognitive states; suppresses emotions or sexual urges
Function of Left Prefrontal Cortex
Function of Right Prefrontal Cortex
Function of Dorsal Prefrontal Cortex
Attention & Cognition
Function of Ventral Prefrontal Cortex
Function of Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex
Decision-making & Emotional Responses
Characteristics of the ANS
Part of the PNS, divided into two systems, located in the medulla oblongata and regulated by the hypothalamus
What is the function of the ANS
Physiological reactions associated with specific emotions; skin temperatures, HR, BR and BP
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Rest & Digest Response
-Increase stomach activity
-Decreased blood flow to muscles
-Decreased HR and Respiration rate
Sympathetic Nervous System
Fight or Flight Response
-Releases epinephrine from adrenal glands
-Increases HR and Respiration rate
-Increases Blood Glucose & BP
-Slows digestive activity
What is the galvanic skin response?
It measures emotion, the autonomic response includes BP, HR, RR and Muscle Tension
What is Appraisal?
It is the subjective evaluation of a situation that induces stress
What are the stages of appraisal?
Primary & Secondary Appraisal
Primary Appraisal is
the initial examination which results in identification of stress as irrelevant, benign-positive or stressful
Secondary Appraisal is
an evaluation of one's ability to cope with stress; it involves evaluation of harm, threat and the challenge
What are the categories of stressors?
Eustress = result of positive conditions
Distress = occurs when experiencing unpleasant stressors
What are the types of stressors?
Environmental (temperature, overcrowded)
Daily Stress Events (traffic, sleep problems)
Life Changes (having children, getting married)
Workplace (workload, conflicts with coworkers)
Chemical (tobacco, alcohol, diet, allergies)
Social (conflict with spouses, partners etc)
What are the psychological stressors?
Pressure, Control, Predictability, Frustration & Conflict
What does pressure produce?
Feeling of urgency to complete tasks
What does control produce?
Reduced stress levels if one is in control of their surroundings and increased stress levels if one cannot control their stress levels
What does predictability produce?
It reduces stress levels if the daily scenario can be predicted
What does frustration produce?
It increases stress levels when attaining a goal or need is prevented
What are conflict stressors?
Stressors that arise from the need to make a choice
What are the three kinds of conflict stressors?
Describe Approach-Approach conflicts
These result from the need to choose between two desirable options
Describe Avoidance-Avoidance conflicts
These result from the need to choose between two negative options
These result when only one choice that has either positive or negative outcomes
How does stress effect psychological functions?
It causes depression, anxiety or PTSD
What are the physiological responses to stressors?
The body reacts via sympathetic nervous systems initiating increase in HR and decrease in digestion; all available energy being reserved for reacting to the stressful event
What are the sequences of responses in General Adaptation Syndrome?
Describe the Alarm reaction
The body prepares itself to deal with stressors;
Hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary to secrete ACTH which stimulates production of cortisol;
Activates secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine
What is the function of cortisol?
Maintain the steady supply of blood sugar needed to respond to stressful events
Describe the Resistance reaction
The continuous release of hormones allows the sympathetic nervous system to remain engaged to fight the stressor;
Describe the Exhaustion reaction
When the body can no longer maintain an elevated response with sympathetic nervous system activity; there is an increased susceptibility to illnesses and medical conditions, anxiety, depression and poor judgments
Emotional Responses to Stress
They influence our mood and sense of well-being
Elevated stress levels can result in people feeling irritable, moody, tense, fearful and helpless & difficulty with concentration and memory
Behavioral Responses to Stress
Changes in daily activity, poor judgment, changing eating habits and irritability; these can include personal withdrawal, difficulties at work or school, substance use, aggression and suicide
What are the two types of coping strategies?
They are either problem focused or emotionally focused
What are problem focused strategies?
Working to overcome a stressor such as reaching out to family and friends for social support, confronting the issue head-on and creating/following a plan of problem-solving actions
What are emotionally focused strategies?
Strategies center on changing one's feelings about a stress - engaging in self control, distancing oneself from the issue, engaging in wishful thikning