3A: Structure and functions of the nervous and endocrine systems and ways in which these systems coordinate the organ systems Flashcards Preview

MCAT > 3A: Structure and functions of the nervous and endocrine systems and ways in which these systems coordinate the organ systems > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3A: Structure and functions of the nervous and endocrine systems and ways in which these systems coordinate the organ systems Deck (170)
Loading flashcards...
1

Neurons

Highly specialized cells responsible for the conduction of impulses

2

How do neurons communicate?

Occur through electrical and chemical forms of communication

3

Electrical Communication

Occurs via ion exchange and generation of membrane potentials down the length of the axon

4

Electrical Communication

Occurs via ion exchange and generation of membrane potentials down the length of the axon

5

Chemical Communication

Occurs via neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic cell and the binding of these neurotransmitters to the postsynaptic cell

6

Chemical Communication

Occurs via neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic cell and the binding of these neurotransmitters to the postsynaptic cell

7

Dendrites

Appendages that receive signals from other cells

8

Dendrites

Appendages of the cell body that receive signals from other cells

9

Cell Body/Soma

Location of the nucleus and organelles such as ER and Ribosomes

10

Axon

Long appendage down which an AP travels

11

Axon Hillock

Where the cell body transitions to the axon and where AP are initiated

12

Axon Hillock

Where the cell body transitions to the axon and where AP are initiated

13

Nerve Terminal/Synaptic Bouton

The end of the axon from which neurotransmitters are released

14

Synapse

Consists of nerve terminal of the presynaptic neuron, the membrane of the postsynaptic cell and the space between the two known as the synaptic cleft

15

Synapse

Consists of nerve terminal of the presynaptic neuron, the membrane of the postsynaptic cell and the space between the two known as the synaptic cleft

16

Myelin

An insulating substance that prevents signal loss and dissipation of the impulse and crossing of neural impulses from adjacent neurons

17

Oligodendrocytes

Creates myelin in the CNS

18

Schwann Cells

Creates myelin in the PNS

19

Schwann Cells

Creates myelin in the PNS

20

Nerves or Tracts

Bundles of axons

21

Tracts

Carry only one type of information

22

Ganglia

Cell bodies of neurons of the same type within a nerve cluster in the PNS

23

Nuclei

Cell bodies of individual neurons with a tract cluster in the CNS

24

Nuclei

Cell bodies of individual neurons with a tract cluster in the CNS

25

Neuroglia/Glial Cells

Astrocytes
Ependymal Cells
Microglial Cells

26

Astrocytes

Nourish neurons and form the blood-brain barrier which controls the transmission of solutes from the bloodstream into nervous tissue

27

Ependymal Cells

Line the ventricles of the brain and produce CSF

28

CSF

Physically supports the brain and serves as a shock absorber

29

CSF

Physically supports the brain and serves as a shock absorber

30

Microglia

Phagocytic cells that ingest and break down waste products and pathogens in the CNS