Flashcards in 8B: Social Thinking Deck (47):
What is Attribution Theory?
It describes how we attach meanings to our own and others behavior; explains how we interpret events around us
What are the two types of attribution?
The attitude, characteristics, motivation, emotions, personality, beliefs about a person explain why that person behaves a certain way
The way that a person behaves is because of a particular situation
Fundamental Attribution Error
[aka Correspondence Bias or Attribution Effect]
When we underestimate the impact of a situation AND overestimate the impact of a persons character or personality
What does Fundamental Attribution Error describe?
It essentially describes that people tend to judge others based on their dispositional factors rather than situational factors
How does culture affect attribution?
Certain cultures have a high value on certain things; some value uniqueness and independence while others value conformity and interdependence.
Things used to understand the behavior of others
"Typical or Random?"
The more regular behavior, the more we associate that behavior with the motives of the person
"Everyone or Just Me?"
If a persons behavior varies in different scenarios, we are more likely to form a situational attribution to explain it
"Majority or Singular?"
If a person deviates from socially expected behavior, we are likely for form a dispositional attribution about the persons behavior
The tendency to blame our actions on the situation and blame the actions of others on their personalities
The tendency to attribute successes to ourselves and our failures to others or the external environment
Individuals who view their own success based on internal factors and failures based on external factors are exhibiting
Self Serving Bias
Focuses on the need to maintain self-worth and can be done through internal attribution of successes and external attribution of failure.
The belief that bad things happen to other people and not to us
Just World Phenomenon
A tendency to believe that the world is fair and people get what they deserve
The tendency to believe that people have inherently good or bad natures, rather than looking at individual characteristics
A model of social perception that focuses on our selection of cues to form interpretations of others that are consistent over time.
First impressions are often more important than subsequent impressions
Most recent information we have about an individual that is the most important in forming our impressions
Involves the understanding of others in our social world; the initial information we process about other people in order to try to understand their mindsets and intentions
The ability of the brain to store and process information regarding social perception
We assume others have the same beliefs as we do & since people have a tendency to look for similarities between themselves and others
We assume that everyone else agrees with what we do
Thoughts, attitudes and feelings someone holds about a group that are not based on actual experience; prejudgment of members of a group
Types of Prejudice
Racism, Classism, Sexism, Nationalism, Agism, Homophobia
What influences prejudice?
Power, Prestige and Class
Ability to control other peoples behavior
Good reputation, high position in society
Upper, middle, lower
Role of Emotion in Prejudice
Aroused by expression or thoughts
Role of Cognition in Prejudice
What people believe is true
Oversimplified ideas about groups of people based on characteristics (such as race, gender, sexuality, religion or disability); they can be positive or negative
The group is looked down upon as inferior, dismissed or ignored
The group is viewed with resentment, annoyance or anger
The group is viewed with jealousy, bitterness or distrust
The group is viewed with pride and other positive feelings
The tendency to judge people from another culture by the standards of ones own culture especially when it comes to language, customs and religion.
Where does ethnocentrism manifest?
It can manifest in innocent displays of ethnic pride to violent supremacy groups
Social group that one identifies his or herself as a member
Social group that one does not identify as a member
The idea that no culture is superior than the other
Extreme disapproval from society, groups, culture etc.; Labeling leads to stigma
Types of Stigma
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy (Pygmalion Effect)
Occurs when stereotypes lead to behaviors that affirm the original stereotypes; something that occurs that validates a stereotype