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Flashcards in 8B: Social Thinking Deck (47):
1

What is Attribution Theory?

It describes how we attach meanings to our own and others behavior; explains how we interpret events around us

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What are the two types of attribution?

Dispositional (Internal)
Situational (External)

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Dispositional Attribution

The attitude, characteristics, motivation, emotions, personality, beliefs about a person explain why that person behaves a certain way

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Situational Attribution

The way that a person behaves is because of a particular situation

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Fundamental Attribution Error
[aka Correspondence Bias or Attribution Effect]

When we underestimate the impact of a situation AND overestimate the impact of a persons character or personality

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What does Fundamental Attribution Error describe?

It essentially describes that people tend to judge others based on their dispositional factors rather than situational factors

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How does culture affect attribution?

Certain cultures have a high value on certain things; some value uniqueness and independence while others value conformity and interdependence.

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Cues

Things used to understand the behavior of others

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Consistency Cues
"Typical or Random?"

The more regular behavior, the more we associate that behavior with the motives of the person

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Distinctiveness Cues
"Everyone or Just Me?"

If a persons behavior varies in different scenarios, we are more likely to form a situational attribution to explain it

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Consensus Cues
"Majority or Singular?"

If a person deviates from socially expected behavior, we are likely for form a dispositional attribution about the persons behavior

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Actor-Observer Bias

The tendency to blame our actions on the situation and blame the actions of others on their personalities

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Self-Serving Bias

The tendency to attribute successes to ourselves and our failures to others or the external environment

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Individuals who view their own success based on internal factors and failures based on external factors are exhibiting

Self Serving Bias

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Self-Enhancement

Focuses on the need to maintain self-worth and can be done through internal attribution of successes and external attribution of failure.

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Optimism Bias

The belief that bad things happen to other people and not to us

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Just World Phenomenon

A tendency to believe that the world is fair and people get what they deserve

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Halo Effect

The tendency to believe that people have inherently good or bad natures, rather than looking at individual characteristics

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Impression Bias

A model of social perception that focuses on our selection of cues to form interpretations of others that are consistent over time.

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Primacy Effect

First impressions are often more important than subsequent impressions

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Recency Effect

Most recent information we have about an individual that is the most important in forming our impressions

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Social Perception

Involves the understanding of others in our social world; the initial information we process about other people in order to try to understand their mindsets and intentions

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Social Cognition

The ability of the brain to store and process information regarding social perception

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Projection Bias

We assume others have the same beliefs as we do & since people have a tendency to look for similarities between themselves and others

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False Consensus

We assume that everyone else agrees with what we do

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Prejudice

Thoughts, attitudes and feelings someone holds about a group that are not based on actual experience; prejudgment of members of a group

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Types of Prejudice

Racism, Classism, Sexism, Nationalism, Agism, Homophobia

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What influences prejudice?

Power, Prestige and Class

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Power

Ability to control other peoples behavior

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Prestige

Good reputation, high position in society

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Class

Upper, middle, lower

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Role of Emotion in Prejudice

Aroused by expression or thoughts

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Role of Cognition in Prejudice

What people believe is true

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Stereotype

Oversimplified ideas about groups of people based on characteristics (such as race, gender, sexuality, religion or disability); they can be positive or negative

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Paternalistic Stereotypes

The group is looked down upon as inferior, dismissed or ignored

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Contemptuous Stereotypes

The group is viewed with resentment, annoyance or anger

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Envious Stereotypes

The group is viewed with jealousy, bitterness or distrust

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Admiration Stereotypes

The group is viewed with pride and other positive feelings

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Ethnocentrism

The tendency to judge people from another culture by the standards of ones own culture especially when it comes to language, customs and religion.

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Where does ethnocentrism manifest?

It can manifest in innocent displays of ethnic pride to violent supremacy groups

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In-Group

Social group that one identifies his or herself as a member

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Out-Group

Social group that one does not identify as a member

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Cultural Relativism

The idea that no culture is superior than the other

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Stigma

Extreme disapproval from society, groups, culture etc.; Labeling leads to stigma

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Types of Stigma

Character Traits
Physical
Group Identity

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Self-Fulfilling Prophecy (Pygmalion Effect)

Occurs when stereotypes lead to behaviors that affirm the original stereotypes; something that occurs that validates a stereotype

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Stereotype Threat

One feeling at risk of confirming negative stereotypes; people are concerned or anxious about confirming a negative stereotype about their social group