8A: Self-identity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 8A: Self-identity Deck (41):
1

Self Concept

Our idea of who we are
e.g. I am a student, intelligent etc.

2

Self Schema

Self-given label that carries a set of qualities

3

Identity

Individual components of our self-concept

4

Aspects of Identity
(A.D.R.R.E.S.S.I.N.G)

Age
Disability Status
Religion
Race
Ethnicity
Sexual Orientation
Socioeconomic Class
Indigenous Background
National Origin
Gender

5

Gender Identity

Self appraisals on scales of masculinity and femininity; not tied to biological sex or sexual orientation

6

Ethnic Identity

Ones ethnic group

7

National Identity

Based on political borders; result of shared history, media, cuisine etc.

8

Hierarchy of Salience

We let the situation we are in dictate which identity holds the most importance for us at any given moment

9

Self-Discrepancy Theory

Maintains that each of us has three selves (ACTUAL, IDEAL AND OUGHT) and generally, the closer that the three selves are to each other, the higher our self-esteem/self-worth will be

10

Actual Self

The way we see ourselves as we currently are; made up by our self-concept

11

Ideal Self

The person we would like to be

12

Ought Self

Our representation of the way others think we should be

13

Self-Esteem

Measure of how we feel about ourselves

14

Self-Efficacy

Our belief in our ability to suceed

15

Locus of Control

Extent to which one believes they can control events affecting them

16

Internal Locus of Control

The belief that one has control over what happens around them and the outcome of their own efforts and actions

17

Characteristics of Internal LOC

Taking responsibility for ones own actions, less likely to be influenced by what others think, they work

18

External Locus of Control

The belief that one has no control over what happens around them and that things are controlled by outside forces

19

Characteristics of External LOC

Blame external sources, credit any success to luck and feel hopeless in difficult situations

20

Self-Reference Effect

Tendency to better remember information relevant to ourselves

21

Learned Helplessness

When people learn not to act because they believe it will not affect the outcome anyway - leads them to remain helpless even in situations where they can exert control

22

An obese patient doesn’t try to lose weight because their parents were also obese and died at a young age, leading the patient to believe that its “in their genes” and they’re destined to end up the same way; what is this an example of?

Learned Helplessness

23

What are the theories for formation of identity? (Psychologist + Name)

Freud - Psychosexual
Erikson - Psychosocial
Kohlberg - Moral Reasoning
Vygotsky - Biosocial

24

5 Psychosexual Development Stages and the ages associated with them

1. Oral (Birth to 1)
2. Anal (1 to 3)
3. Oedipal (3 to 5)
4. Latency (5 to 12)
5. Genital (13+)

25

Oral Stage

Gratification is obtained through putting objects into their mouth

26

Anal Stage

Gratification is obtained through elimination and retention of waste

27

Oedipal Stage (Males)

Envy fathers relationship with mother, fears castration, establishes sexual identity by identifying with his father

28

Oedipal Stage (Female)

Girls experience penis envy, expected to exhibit less stereotypically female behavior

29

8 Psychosocial Development Stages

1. Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Industry vs. Inferiority
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation
8. Integrity vs. Despair

30

3 Categories of Moral Reasoning

1. Preconventional Morality
2. Conventional Morality
3. Postconventional Morality

31

6 Stages of Moral Reasoning

1. Obedience
2. Self Interest
3. Conformity
4. Law & Order
5. Social Contract
6. Universal Human Ethics

32

Biosocial Development

Suggests that the driving force for cognitive development was the child’s internalization of various aspects of the culture: rules, symbols, language etc.; as they are internalized, cognitive abilities develop accordingly

33

Zone of Proximal Development

Those skills and abilities that have not yet fully developed but are in the process of development; gaining these skills successfully requires the help of a more knowledgeable other

34

How do individuals influence identity?

Through imitation, role-taking

35

Looking-Glass Self

The idea that a persons sense of self develops from interpersonal interactions with others in society and the perception of others;

People shape their self-concepts based on their understanding of how others perceive them

36

Imitation

Reproducing observed behaviors, involves mirror neurons

37

Role-Taking

Social perception that involves understanding of other's roles and their situation;

Learn to become aware of other peoples identity and perspectives that differ from their own

38

Reference Group

A group that is socially compared to another group; it allows determination and evaluation of a given group

39

Social Behaviorism

The idea that the mind and self emerge through the process of communicating with others

40

Cultural Influence on Identity

Identity is influenced by different nationalities, language, sexuality, ethnicity, social class, generation or religion

41

Socialization influence on Identity

A person observes, determines and evaluations other peoples identity and values; allows a culture to pass on its values from one generation to the next