Flashcards in 7A: Individual Influences on Behavior Deck (178)
What are the two major divisions of the nervous system?
Central and Peripheral
What does the CNS include?
Brain and spinal cord
What does the PNS include?
Cranial and spinal nerves; divided into somatic (voluntary) and autonomic (involuntary) divisions
What are the divisions of the ANS?
Parasympathetic (Rest & Digest)
Sympathetic (Fight or Flight)
What are the types of neurons in the nervous system?
What is the structure of the neuron?
Cell Body (Soma)
Nodes of Ranvier
What are neurotransmitters?
These are what neurons use to communicate with each other
What is the function of Acetylcholine?
Associated with voluntary movement (muscle contraction) and development of memory in the hippocampus; also used for alertness
What is the function of Serotonin?
Regulates appetite, sex drive, moods and ability to sleep
Shortage: depression/anxiety disorders
What is the function of Dopamine?
Affects our ability to concentrate, pay attention, learn and move
Shortage: Parkinsons Disease
What is the function of Norepinephrine?
Involved with glucose metabolism and energy
What is the function of γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)?
It is an inhibitory neurotransmitter; reduces neuronal excitability
Shortage: Anxiety Disorders
What is the function of Endorphins?
It is an inhibitory neuropeptide that is involved with pain reduction; Enkephalins also do the same
What are reflex arcs?
These utilize the ability of interneurons in the spinal cord to relay information to the source of stimuli while simultaneously routing it to the brain
Receptor -> Sensory -> Integration center -> Motor -> Effector
What structures are in the forebrain?
What structures are in the midbrain?
Inferior and Superior Colliculi
What structures are in the hindbrain?
What structures are in the brainstem?
Function of Thalamus
Relay station for sensory infromation
Function of Hypothalamus
Maintain homeostasis & integrates with the endocrine system through the hypophyseal portal system that connects to the anterior pituitary
Function of Basal Ganglia
Smoothen movements and help maintain postural stability
Function of Limbic System
Controls Emotion and Memory
Function of Septal Nuclei
Involved with feelings of pleasure, pleasure-seeking behavior and addiction
Function of Amygdala
Controls fear and aggression
Function of Hippocampus
Consolidates memories and communicates with other parts of the limbic system through the fornix
Parts of the Cerebral Cortex
Function of Frontal Lobe
Controls executive function, impulse control, long-term planning, motor function and speech production
Function of Parietal Lobe
Controls sensation of touch, pressure, temperature and pain; spatial processing, spatial orientation and spatial manipulation
Function of Occipital Lobe
Controls visual processing