7A: Individual Influences on Behavior Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 7A: Individual Influences on Behavior Deck (178):
1

What are the two major divisions of the nervous system?

Central and Peripheral

2

What does the CNS include?

Brain and spinal cord

3

What does the PNS include?

Cranial and spinal nerves; divided into somatic (voluntary) and autonomic (involuntary) divisions

4

What are the divisions of the ANS?

Parasympathetic (Rest & Digest)
Sympathetic (Fight or Flight)

5

What are the types of neurons in the nervous system?

Sensory (Afferent)
Interneurons
Motor (Efferent)

6

What is the structure of the neuron?

Cell Body (Soma)
Dendrites
Axon Hillock
Axon
Myelin Sheath
Synaptic Terminal
Nodes of Ranvier

7

What are neurotransmitters?

These are what neurons use to communicate with each other

8

What is the function of Acetylcholine?

Associated with voluntary movement (muscle contraction) and development of memory in the hippocampus; also used for alertness
Excess: depression
Shortage: dementia

9

What is the function of Serotonin?

Regulates appetite, sex drive, moods and ability to sleep
Shortage: depression/anxiety disorders

10

What is the function of Dopamine?

Affects our ability to concentrate, pay attention, learn and move
Excess: Schizophrenia
Shortage: Parkinsons Disease

11

What is the function of Norepinephrine?

Involved with glucose metabolism and energy
Shortage: Depression

12

What is the function of γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)?

It is an inhibitory neurotransmitter; reduces neuronal excitability
Shortage: Anxiety Disorders

13

What is the function of Endorphins?

It is an inhibitory neuropeptide that is involved with pain reduction; Enkephalins also do the same

14

What are reflex arcs?

These utilize the ability of interneurons in the spinal cord to relay information to the source of stimuli while simultaneously routing it to the brain

Receptor -> Sensory -> Integration center -> Motor -> Effector

15

What structures are in the forebrain?

Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Basal Ganglia
Limbic System
Cerebral Cortex

16

What structures are in the midbrain?

Inferior and Superior Colliculi

17

What structures are in the hindbrain?

Cerebellum
Medulla Oblongata
Reticular Formation

18

What structures are in the brainstem?

Medulla
Pons
Midbrain

19

Function of Thalamus

Relay station for sensory infromation

20

Function of Hypothalamus

Maintain homeostasis & integrates with the endocrine system through the hypophyseal portal system that connects to the anterior pituitary

21

Function of Basal Ganglia

Smoothen movements and help maintain postural stability

22

Function of Limbic System

Controls Emotion and Memory

23

Function of Septal Nuclei

Involved with feelings of pleasure, pleasure-seeking behavior and addiction

24

Function of Amygdala

Controls fear and aggression

25

Function of Hippocampus

Consolidates memories and communicates with other parts of the limbic system through the fornix

26

Parts of the Cerebral Cortex

Frontal Lobe
Parietal Lobe
Occipital Lobe
Temporal Lobe

27

Function of Frontal Lobe

Controls executive function, impulse control, long-term planning, motor function and speech production

28

Function of Parietal Lobe

Controls sensation of touch, pressure, temperature and pain; spatial processing, spatial orientation and spatial manipulation

29

Function of Occipital Lobe

Controls visual processing

30

Function of Temporal Lobe

Controls sound processing, speech perception, memory and emotion

31

Which hemisphere of the brain is usually dominant for language?

The Left Hemisphere

32

What are some cortical functions that are lateralized?

Language, handedness

33

What are some methods used to study the brain?

Creating lesions, using electroencephalograms (brain waves), computerized axial tomography (3D picture), magnetic resonance imaging (detailed picture), positron emission tomography (brain activity)

34

What are the functions of the endocrine system?

It is utilized as a way for cells to communicate with one of another over long distances

35

What coordinates the endocrine system?

Hypothalamus

36

What is the function of the pituitary gland?

Secretes hormones and neurotransmitters for growth, reproduction and mental development

37

What is the function of the thyroid gland?

Regulate metabolism, energy usage and it has immune functions

38

What is the function of the parathyroid gland?

It is used to manage proper bone development; regulate calcium levels in blood

39

What is the function of the adrenal gland?

Releases adrenaline and manages energy usage

40

What is the function of the pineal gland?

It connects the endocrine and nervous system; it releases melatonin

41

What is the function of the reproductive gland (ovaries & testes)?

Produces estrogen, testosterone and progesterone

42

What is the function of cortisol?

Released by the adrenal cortex during stress to mediate blood glucose levels

43

What is the function of testosterone & estrogen?

They mediate libido and produce secondary sexual characteristics

44

What is the function of epinephrine & norepinephrine?

They are released by adrenal medulla and cause physiological changes associated with the sympathetic nervous system involved in HR, BP, Metabolism etc.

45

How does the endocrine system affect behavior?

It is involved in reproductive behaviors, sleeping patterns (wakefulness) and emotions

46

How do genes affect behavior?

Certain behaviors are predetermined by genetics and some personality traits are influenced by genes; manipulating genes in a species can affect their behavior characteristics

47

What are temperaments?

A person's or animal's nature, especially as it permanently affects their behaviour.

48

What are the three types of temperaments?

Difficult, Easy, Cautious

49

How does heredity influence behavior?

Parents pass their traits to their children; personality and behavior characteristics overlap

50

Nature vs. Nurture

It describes the contributions of genetics and environment on an individual's trait

51

Family Studies (Nature vs. Nurture)

Looks at the relative frequency of a trait within a family compared to the general population

52

Twin Studies (Nature vs. Nurture)

Compares concordance rates between monozygotic and dizygotic twins

53

Adoption Studies

Compare similarities between adopted children and their adoptive parents, relative to similarities with their biological parents

54

Describe the value of traits/behaviors

They are adaptive and adjustable, change throughout development, culture and environment

55

How does the nervous system develop?

Through neurulation, which is when the notochord stimulates ectoderm to fold over creating neural tube, covered by the neural crest

56

What does the neural tube become?

The central nervous system

57

What do the neural crest cells become?

They spread out throughout the body, differentiating into many different tissues

58

What are the stages of embryonic development?

Fertilization -> Cleavage -> Gastrulation -> Neurulation -> Neural Crest Formation -> Organogenesis

59

Fertilization

The union of male and female gametes

60

Cleavage
(Embryo called: blastula)

The zygote rapidly divides into many smaller cells without an overall increase in size; it increases in mass

Blastomeres are formed, which eventually form a morula followed by a blastula which is filled with blastocoel

61

Gastrulation
(Embryo called: gastrula)

Cells of the zygote form the primary germ layers (ecto, meso and endoderm); the blastocoel is eliminated and the archenteron is formed;

62

Neurulation
(Embryo called: Neurula)

The nervous system begins to form through the creation of the neural tube

63

Neural Crest Formation

Form sensory cells, adrenal medulla

64

Organogenesis

Different body organs begin to form

65

What does the ectoderm differentiate into?

Skin, lens of the eye, brain and nervous system

66

What does the mesoderm differentiate into?

Notochord, Heart, Skeleton, Muscle, Epithelia of Organs, Reproductive Organs

67

What does the endoderm differentiate into?

Inner lining of digestive tract, respiratory tract, major glands such as liver, pancreas

68

What are primitive reflexes?

These exist in infants and should disappear with age, most served in a protective role

69

Rooting Reflex

Infants turn his or her head toward anything that brushes the cheek

70

Moro Reflex

Infant extends the arms and slowly retracts them and cries in response to a falling sensation

71

Babinski Reflex

The big toe is extended and the other toes fan in response to the brushing of the sole of the foot

72

Grasping Reflex

The infant grabs anything put into his or her hand

73

How do gross and fine motor abilities progress?

Head to Toe
Core to Periphery

74

How do social skills progress?

They shift from parent-oriented to self-oriented to other-oriented

75

How do language skills progress?

They becoming increasingly complex with age

76

What developmental changes occur in adolescence?

People develop abilities to comprehend abstract ideas, mature senses, grow independence

77

What physical developmental changes occur in adolescence?

In girls, breasts are developed, menstruation begins, pubic hair develops

In boys, testes and scrotum grows, pubic hair, armpit, leg, chest and facial hair grow, voice becomes deeper

78

Define Personality

Describes the set of thoughts, feelings, traits and behaviors which are characteristic of an individual across time and different locations

79

What are the theories of personality?

1. Psychoanalytic
2. Humanistic
3. Trait
4. Social Cognitive
5. Biological
6. Behaviorist

80

Describe the Psychoanalytic Perspective

They assume that unconscious internal states that motivate the overt actions of individuals and determine personality

81

What are Sigmund Freud's contributions to the psychoanalytic perspective

Freud studied the ID, Ego and Superego

82

Define the ID

It consists of the basic, primal, inborn urges to survive and reproduce

83

Describe the ID

The ID seeks pleasure (pleasure principle) and it has a primary process (response to frustration) in which it seeks immediate gratification

84

Define the Ego

It is the reality principle, it balances between pleasure and pain; it acts as the organizer of the mind

85

Describe the Ego

It takes into account objective reality and inhibits the pleasure principle, seeks delayed gratification and it moderates desires of the superego

86

Define the Superego

It is the perfectionist, judges our actions and responds with pride at our accomplishments and guilt at our failures

87

Describe the Superego

It is the morality principle, considered to be conscious drive and social morality

88

What is the preconscious?

Thoughts we are not aware of

89

What is the unconscious?

Thoughts that have been repressed

90

What is Eros?

Life instincts that promote an individuals quest for survival through thirst, hunger and sexual needs

91

What is Thanatos?

Death instincts that represent an unconscious wish for death and destruction

92

What are defense mechanisms?

The ego's recourse for relieving anxiety caused by the clash of the id and superego; it begins with denying, falsifying or distorting reality and then operating unconsciously

93

What is repression?

The ego's way of forcing undesired thoughts and urges to the unconscious; it is considered unconscious forgetting

94

What is suppression?

It is a conscious form of forgetting

95

What is regression?

It is reversion to an earlier developmental state; older children reverting to thumb-sucking, throwing temper tantrums or clinging to their mothers

96

What is reaction formation?

When individuals suppress urges by unconsciously converting them into their exact opposites

97

What is projection?

Individuals attributing their undesired feelings to tohers

98

What is rationalization?

Justification of behaviors in a manner that is acceptable to the self and society

99

What is displacement?

The transference of an undesired urge from one person or object to another

100

What is sublimation?

The transformation of unacceptable urges into socially acceptable behaviors

101

What are Carl Jung's contributions to the psychoanalytic perspective?

He thought of libido as psychic energy and described a personal unconscious and collective unconscious

102

What are Carl Jung's archetypes?

Persona, Anima, Animus, Shadow

103

What is self as described by Carl Jung?

Self was the point of intersection between the collective unconscious, the personal unconscious and the conscious mind

104

What are Jung's dichotomies?

E vs. I
S vs. N
T vs. F

105

What is extraversion?

Orientation toward the external world

106

What is introversion?

Orientation toward the inner, personal world

107

What is sensing?

Obtaining objective information about the world

108

What is intuition?

Working with information abstractly

109

What is thinking?

Using logic and reason

110

What is feeling?

Using a value system or personal beliefs

111

What is the Humanistic Perspective?

These theories focus on the value of individuals and appreciate a person-centered approach; it suggests that humans think rationally and have the ability to control biological urges

112

Define Maslow's view on personality

He argued that humans need self actualization to recognize one's own potential

113

How did Maslow describe people of the humanistic perspective?

They displayed self-acceptance, awareness, openness, sense of humor, close relationships with others and emotional satisfaction

114

Define Carl Rogers view on personality

He argued that people have the freedom to control their own behavior and are neither slaves to the unconscious nor subjects of faulty learning

115

What is incongruence?

The idea that there is a difference between the self-concept and reality

116

What is congruence?

The idea that self-concept is pretty similar to reality

117

What is the trait perspective?

It describes a stable pattern of behavior, thought and emotion; they describe individual personality as the sum of persons characteristic behaviors

118

What is Gordon Allport's' view?

He argued that conscious traits better represent personality than unconscious drives

119

What are Allport's 3 traits?

Cardinal
Central
Secondary

120

What are cardinal traits?

Dominates and shapes one's characteristics which provide direction to life

121

What are central traits?

General traits found in everyone, drive daily interactions, always want control a situation

122

What are secondary traits?

These are specific responses to specific situations

123

What are William Sheldon's somatotypes?

Short & Stocky = Jolly
Tall = High-strung and Aloof
In Between = Strong and Well-Adjusted

124

Type A Personality

Competitive and compulsive

125

Type B Personality

Laid-back and relax

126

PEN Model of Traits

Psychoticism
Extraversion
Neuroticism
Openness
Conscientiousness

127

Psychoticism

A measure of nonconformity or social deviance

128

Extraversion

a measure of tolerance for social interaction and stimulation

129

Neuroticism

A measure of emotional arousal in stressful situations

130

What is Functional Autonomy?

Behavior continues despite satisfaction of the drive that originally created behavior

131

What is the Social Cognitive Perspective?

Focuses on how our environment influences our behavior but also how we interact with the enviroment

132

Reciprocal Determinism

The idea that our thoughts, feelings, behaviors and environment all interact with each other to determine our actions in a given situation; people choose environments that suit their personalities

133

What is Biological Perspective?

It suggests that personality can be explained as a result of genetic expression in the brain; involves motivation, reward and punishment as well as levels of neurotransmitters

134

What is the Behaviorist Perspective?

This perspective is based on operant condition; it suggests that personality is a reflection of behaviors that have been reinforced over time

135

What is Attribution Theory?

A theory which attempts to explain how individuals view behavior; they attribute behavior to internal causes (dispositional attribution) or external causes (situational attribution

136

Which factors influence motivation?

Instinct, Arousal, Drives and Needs

137

What is instinct?

Innate behavior from biological influences, occurs in absence of learning

138

What is arousal?

Awake state, stimulated by reticular formation

139

What are drives?

Internal states that activates behavior; when need is satisfied, drive is reduced

140

What are needs?

Needs give purpose and direction to behavior, toward a certain goal; society and culture influence the needs

141

What are innate needs?

Food, Water etc.

142

What are learned needs?

Achievements, Power etc.

143

What is motivation?

It is the purpose behind our actions

144

What is extrinsic motivation?

This comes from outside oneself; it includes rewards for showing a desired behavior or avoiding punishment if desired behavior is not achieved

145

What is intrinsic motivation?

This comes from within oneself; it can driven by interest in a task or pure enjoyment

146

Which theories explain how motivation affects human behavior?

Instinct Theory,
Drive Reduction Theory,
Arousal Theory,
Need-Based Theory,
Incentive Theory,
Expectancy-Value Theory
Sexual Motivation Theory

147

Instinct Theory

Motivation is based on instincts where are innate, fixed patterns of behavior in response to stimuli; behavioral drives are based on evolutionarily instincts

148

Arousal Theory

The psychological and physiological state of being awake and reactive to stimuli and influences motivation; people perform actions in order to maintain an optimal level of arousal

Involves the brainstem, ANS, endocrine system and it plays a vital role in behavior and cognition

149

Drive Reduction Theory

This theory states that people behave certain ways to decrease their needs and maintain physiological equilibrium;

Primary drive are the need for food, water and warmth which motivate us to sustain bodily processes in homeostasis

150

Ghrelin

Creates a hunger drive and motivate eating

151

Leptin

This curves hunger

152

What are secondary drives?

Those that are not directly related to biological processes that stem from learning

153

Incentive Theory

People behave a certain way due to environmental stimulus; tangible or intangible reward is the most common incentive

154

What are Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?

This postulates that certain needs will yield greater influence on our motivation; he classified needs into five groups and assigned different levels of priority to each group

155

What is the most basic level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

Physiological Needs: breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis, excretion

156

What is the second level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

Safety: security of body, employment, resources, morality, family, health and property

157

What is the third level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

Love/Belonging: friendship, family and sexual intimacy

158

What is the fourth level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

Esteem: self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by others

159

What is the fifth level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

Self-Actualization: Morality, Creativity, Spontaneity, Problem-Solving, Lack of prejudice, Acceptance of facts

160

What happens if one of the lower needs are not met?

That need will be considered the highest priority

161

Self-Determination Theory

Emphasizes the role of three universal needs:
1. Autonomy - need to be in control of one's actions and ideas
2. Competence - need to complete and excel at difficult tasks
3. Relatedness - need to feel accepted and wanted in relationships

162

What biological motivators regulate behavior?

Eating/Hunger, Sex Drive, Drug & Alcohol Use

163

Which sociocultural motivators regulate behavior?

Eating, Sexual, Drug & Alcohol Use

164

How does eating affect behavior?

The brain, digestive system and hormones are all involved in regulating hunger motivation; it is regulated by time, desire, appeal, occasions and availability

165

How does sex affect behavior?

Hormonal regulation of sexual motivation includes testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin and vasopressin; regulated by time, desire, appeal, occasions and availability

166

How does drug and alcohol use affect behavior?

Influenced by genetics, withdrawal and biochemical reactions, influenced by curiosity, emotional control, stress and level of self-esteem

167

What is attitude?

A way of evaluating others, issues, events, objects etc.

168

What are the components of attitude?

Affective Component
Behavioral Component
Cognitive Component

169

What is the affective component?

Feelings toward a certain object, issue, person etc.

"Being scared of spiders"

170

What is the behavioral component?

One's behavior is influenced by attitude

"Running away from spiders"

171

What is the cognitive component?

One's thoughts, theories and beliefs about certain subject

"One believes that spiders are dangerous

172

What are some links between attitudes and behavior?

Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon
Role-Playing Effects

173

Foot-in-the-Door Technique

This refers to convincing individuals to make a small commitment towards a cause because the small commitment increases the likelihood of a large commitment toward the same cause; it is a compliance technique

174

Foot-in-the-Door Effect

Small agreements form a bond between the person that asked for the request and the person that is being asked which means that when the person asks for another request, the person feels obliged to act consistently with their previous decision

175

Role-Playing Effect

This shows that people internalize roles by altering their attitudes which become suitable roles; a prison study

176

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

People change their attitudes when there is an inconsistency in their cognition (thoughts and beliefs);

It states that when individuals attitudes are incongruent with their behavior they change that attitude or behavior to eliminate cognitive dissonance

177

What does dissonance depend on?

The importance of certain beliefs/ideas to us, level of conflict between dissonant thoughts, ability to rationalize

178

How is cognitive dissonance reduced?

Stabilize the dissonant belief/behavior by focusing on more supportive beliefs
[Change Belief]

Reducing conflicting beliefs level of importance
[Change Action]

Justify one's behavior or beliefs by adding new cognition
[Change Action Perception]