7A: Individual Influences on Behavior Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 7A: Individual Influences on Behavior Deck (178)
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1

What are the two major divisions of the nervous system?

Central and Peripheral

2

What does the CNS include?

Brain and spinal cord

3

What does the PNS include?

Cranial and spinal nerves; divided into somatic (voluntary) and autonomic (involuntary) divisions

4

What are the divisions of the ANS?

Parasympathetic (Rest & Digest)
Sympathetic (Fight or Flight)

5

What are the types of neurons in the nervous system?

Sensory (Afferent)
Interneurons
Motor (Efferent)

6

What is the structure of the neuron?

Cell Body (Soma)
Dendrites
Axon Hillock
Axon
Myelin Sheath
Synaptic Terminal
Nodes of Ranvier

7

What are neurotransmitters?

These are what neurons use to communicate with each other

8

What is the function of Acetylcholine?

Associated with voluntary movement (muscle contraction) and development of memory in the hippocampus; also used for alertness
Excess: depression
Shortage: dementia

9

What is the function of Serotonin?

Regulates appetite, sex drive, moods and ability to sleep
Shortage: depression/anxiety disorders

10

What is the function of Dopamine?

Affects our ability to concentrate, pay attention, learn and move
Excess: Schizophrenia
Shortage: Parkinsons Disease

11

What is the function of Norepinephrine?

Involved with glucose metabolism and energy
Shortage: Depression

12

What is the function of γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)?

It is an inhibitory neurotransmitter; reduces neuronal excitability
Shortage: Anxiety Disorders

13

What is the function of Endorphins?

It is an inhibitory neuropeptide that is involved with pain reduction; Enkephalins also do the same

14

What are reflex arcs?

These utilize the ability of interneurons in the spinal cord to relay information to the source of stimuli while simultaneously routing it to the brain

Receptor -> Sensory -> Integration center -> Motor -> Effector

15

What structures are in the forebrain?

Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Basal Ganglia
Limbic System
Cerebral Cortex

16

What structures are in the midbrain?

Inferior and Superior Colliculi

17

What structures are in the hindbrain?

Cerebellum
Medulla Oblongata
Reticular Formation

18

What structures are in the brainstem?

Medulla
Pons
Midbrain

19

Function of Thalamus

Relay station for sensory infromation

20

Function of Hypothalamus

Maintain homeostasis & integrates with the endocrine system through the hypophyseal portal system that connects to the anterior pituitary

21

Function of Basal Ganglia

Smoothen movements and help maintain postural stability

22

Function of Limbic System

Controls Emotion and Memory

23

Function of Septal Nuclei

Involved with feelings of pleasure, pleasure-seeking behavior and addiction

24

Function of Amygdala

Controls fear and aggression

25

Function of Hippocampus

Consolidates memories and communicates with other parts of the limbic system through the fornix

26

Parts of the Cerebral Cortex

Frontal Lobe
Parietal Lobe
Occipital Lobe
Temporal Lobe

27

Function of Frontal Lobe

Controls executive function, impulse control, long-term planning, motor function and speech production

28

Function of Parietal Lobe

Controls sensation of touch, pressure, temperature and pain; spatial processing, spatial orientation and spatial manipulation

29

Function of Occipital Lobe

Controls visual processing

30

Function of Temporal Lobe

Controls sound processing, speech perception, memory and emotion