Flashcards in 7B: Social processes that influence human behavior Deck (34):
What is social facilitation?
It is a theory that describes when you perform better on easy tasks when others are watching you; it enhances easy behavior and impairs difficult behavior
What is the co-action effect?
Better performance in presence of others carrying out the same task
What is the audience effect?
Better performance in presence of passive spectator/audience
What is activation theory?
Presence of others work as a basis of arousal to provide enhanced performance
What is deindividuation?
When in a group, an individual's self-awareness and responsibility is lost
What factors affect deindividuation in a group?
What is the bystander effect?
A phenomenon that occurs when presence of others hinders other drive to help a victim in a situation; the likelihood to a help a person in need decreases with greater number of people around; a result of diffused responsibility
What is social loafing?
The tendency for people to exert less effort if they are being evaluated as a group than if they are individually accountable
What is peer pressure?
When people influence how you act, the decisions you make and how you behave; can be negative or positive
What is group conformity?
When individuals are compliant with groups goals even when they are in contrast with an individual's goal - done in an attempt to be accepted by the group
What is group polarization?
The group's tendency to make more extreme decisions than the individuals initial opinions;
They're inclined to take greater risk;
The average view of a member of the group is accentuated or enhanced by group membership
What is groupthink?
Occurs within a group when the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in a consensual perspective without much thought or alternative viewpoints; individuals agree with the decisions made within the group
What is conformity?
Change of personal behavior due to real or imagined pressure
What is normative influence?
Compliance, conforming with the majority even if one disagrees to avoid rejection
What is informational influence?
Internalization, complying because we want to do the right thing and adopt to others viewpoints
What is obedience?
Altering behavior to the ideas of authority
What are norms?
The spoken or unspoken rules and expectations for the behavior of the members in a society.
What are sanctions?
Rewards and punishments for behavior that are in accord with or against the norms.
What are formal norms?
They are precisely defined, publicly presented and accompanied by strict penalties for anyone that violates them. e.g. Laws
What are informal norms?
Generally understood but less precise and carry no specific punishment
What are folkways?
Norms that are less important but shape everyday behavior
What are mores?
Norms that are highly important for the benefit of society and are strictly enforced
What is anomie?
It refers to the lack of social norm or the breakdown of social bonds between an individual and society
What is deviance?
Violation of societies standards of conduct of expectations; any behavior that strays away from expectations or usual norms
What are the types of deviance?
Formal (violating law)
Informal (violating social norms)
Cultural (violating ones culture)
Psychological (developing personality disorder)
Group (particular group deviating from social norms)
What is strain theory?
It states that social structures within society may pressure citizens to commit crime; it focuses on how anomic conditions can lead to deviance
What is labeling theory?
A theory of how the self-identity and behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them. It is associated with the concepts of self-fulfilling prophecy and stereotyping
What is socialization?
A continual process of developing one's identity, beliefs and knowledge; involves learning the values, behaviors, norms and social skills to appropriate social status; people learn to be proficient and functional members of society
What are agents of socialization?
Things that influence our lives and development of culture over time
What are the agents of socialization?
Family, School, Peers, Workplace, Religion/Government and Mass Media/Technology
What is cultural assimilation?
Assimilation is the process by which an individual forsakes aspects of his or hew own cultural tradition to adopt those of a different culture; generally, the individual is a member of a minority group and is attempting to conform to dominant culture
What is cultural amalgamation?
Amalgamation occurs when majority and minority groups combine to form a new group, a unique cultural group is formed
What is multiculturalism?
A perspective that endorses equal standing for all cultural traditions; promoting the idea of cultures coming together in a true melting pot rather than in a hierarchy.