Hormones Flashcards Preview

MCAT > Hormones > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hormones Deck (72):
1

Pineal Gland Hormones

Melatonin

2

Melatonin

Induces sleep

3

Thymus Gland Hormones

Thymosin

4

Thymosin

Stimulates T-cell Development

5

Thyroid Gland Hormones

T3 Triiodothyronine
T4 Tetraiodothyronine
Calcitonin

6

T3 & T4

Increase basal metabolic rate

7

Calcitonin

Causes the modeling of bone and decreases Ca levels in the blood

8

Parathyroid Gland Hormones

PTH

9

PTH

Causes the resorption of bone and increases Ca levels in the blood

10

Adrenal Cortex Hormones

Cortisol
Sex steroids

11

Cortisol

Responds to stress long-term, increases blood glucose, protein catabolism, decreases inflammation

12

Adrenal Medulla Hormones

Epinephrine
Aldosterone

13

Epinephrine

Rapid sympathetic stress response

14

Aldosterone

Increases sodium reabsorption to increase BP

15

Pancreas Hormones

Glucagon (alpha cells)
Insulin (beta cells)
Somatostatin (delta cells)

16

Glucagon

Results in an increase in blood glucose and decrease in glycogen and fat storage

17

Insulin

Results in a decrease in blood glucose and increase in glycogen and fat storage;

18

Somatostatin

Inhibits glucagon and insulin secretion

19

Ovarian Hormones

Estrogen
Progesterone

20

Estrogen

Develops secondary sexual characteristics

21

Progesterone

Develops the endometrium

22

Testicular Hormones

Testosterone

23

Testosterone

Develops secondary sexual characteristics

24

Anterior Pituitary Hormones

Growth Hormone
Prolactin
TSH
ACTH
LH
FSH

25

Growth Hormone

Increases bone and muscle growth, increases basal metabolic rate

26

Prolactin

Milk production

27

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

Increases synthesis and release of thyroid hormone

28

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

Increases growth and secretory activity of adrenal cortex

29

Luteinizing Hormone

Ovulation or Testosterone synthesis

30

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone

Follicle development or spermatogenesis

31

Posterior Pituitary Hormones

ADH
Oxytocin

32

Antidiuretic Hormone

Water retention

33

Oxytocin

Milk letdown and uterine contractions

34

Heart Hormones

Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF)

35

Atrial Natriuretic Factor

Increases urination to decrease BP

36

Kidney Hormones

Erythropoietin (acts on bone marrow)

37

Erythropoietin

Increases RBC synthesis

38

Hypothalamus Hormones
[Hypothalamic-adenohypophyseal axis]

Thyrotropin-releasing Hormone
Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone
Corticotropin-releasing Hormone
Somatostatin
Dopamine

39

Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone
[Target: Thyroid]

Stimulates the release of TSH & Prolactin

40

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
[Target: Adrenal Cortex]

Stimulate the release of ACTH

41

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
[Target: Gonads]

Stimulate the release of FSH and LH

42

Dopamine
[Target: Breast Tissue]

Inhibit prolactin release;

*Decrease in dopamine promotes prolactin secretion

43

Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone

Stimulates the release of TSH & Prolactin

44

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone

Stimulate the release of ACTH

45

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone

Stimulate the release of FSH and LH

46

Dopamine

Inhibit prolactin release; decrease in dopamine promotes prolactin secretion

47

Dopamine

Inhibit prolactin release

48

Somatostatin

Inhibit GH, TSH

49

Hypothalamus Hormones
[Hypothalamic-Neurohypophyseal Axis]

Oxytocin
Vasopressin

50

Oxytocin

Uterine contraction and lactation (letdown)

51

Vasopressin (ADH)

Increases the permeability to water of the distal tubule and collecting duct; increases water reabsorption and excretion of concentrated urine

52

Secretin

Regulates water homeostasis

53

Cholecystokinin

Stimulates digestion of fat and proteins

54

Ghrelin

Regulates hunger and energy usage

55

Leptin

Inhibits hunger and energy balance

56

Gastrin

Cleaves large proteins into smaller peptides

57

Trophic Hormones

Has a growth effect on the tissues they stimulate

58

Tropic Hormones

Have other endocrine glands as their target

59

Hormone Chemical Precursor

Peptide: Amino Acids/Polypeptides
Steroid: Cholesterol

60

Hormone Location of Receptor

Peptide: Extracellular
Steroid: Intracellular or Intranuclear

61

Hormone Mechanism of Action

Peptide: Stimulates an extracellular receptor affecting levels of a second messenger [cAMP]; initiates signal cascade

Steroid: Binds to a receptor, induces conformational changes and regulates transcription at the level of DNA

62

Hormone Method of Travel in Bloodstream

Peptide: Dissolves & travels freely

Steroid: Binds to a carrier protein

63

Hormone Rapidness of Onset

Peptide: Quick

Steroid: Slow

64

Hormone Duration of Action

Peptide: Short-lived

Steroid: Long-lived

65

Hormone Duration of Action

Peptide: Short-lived

Steroid: Long-lived

66

Parafollicular Cells

Calcitonin

67

Adrenal Medulla

Catecholamines includes Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

68

Pancreatic Alpha Cells

Glucagon

69

Pancreatic Beta Cells

Insulin

70

Pancreatic Delta Cells

Somatostatin

71

Posterior Pituitary

ADH/Vasopressin
Oxytocin

72

Adrenal Cortex

Aldosterone (Mineralocorticoids)