Flashcards in 7C: Attitude and behavior change Deck (54)
What is habituation?
This describes a decrease in response to a stimuli due to repeated exposure
What is dishabituation?
This describes a recovery of the original response to a stimuli after habituation has occured
When is dishabituation most common?
This is most common when a second stimulus is presented and it interrupts the habituation process and causes an increase in response to the original stimulus
What is learning?
It is the way in which we acquire new behaviors; change in behavior that occurs in response to a stimulus
What are the two types of learning?
1. Associative Learning
2. Observational Learning
What is Associative Learning?
It is the creation of a pairing either between two stimuli or between a behavior and a response
What are the two subtypes of Associative Learning?
1. Classical Conditioning
2. Operant Conditioning
Describe Classical Conditioning
It takes advantage of biological, instinctual responses to create associations between two unrelated stimuli
What are the stimuli involved in classical conditioning?
What is a neutral stimuli? (NS)
A stimulus that does not trigger a reflexive response
What is a conditioned stimuli? (CS)
A stimulus that was initially neutral but conditioned to produce a reflexive response
What is an unconditioned stimuli? (UCS)
A stimulus that is not affected by conditioning, any that brings a reflexive response
What is an unconditioned response?
It is an innate or reflexive response that occurs without any conditioning
What is a conditioned response?
A reflexive response produced from a conditioned stimulus
What is acquisition?
It is the process of pairing an unconditioned stimuli with a neutral stimuli to create a conditioned stimuli
What is classical extinction?
This process occurs when the organism becomes habituated to the conditioned stimulus
What is spontaneous recovery?
This process occurs when the extinct conditioned stimuli is presented and a conditioned response reappears
What is generalization?
This is the effect by which a stimulus similar enough to the conditioned stimulus can also produce a conditioned response
What is discrimination?
This describes an organism learning to distinguish between two similar stimuli
Describe Operant Conditioning
This is a process of behavior learning;
It links voluntary behavior with consequences in an effort to alter the frequency of those behaviors;
It relies on reinforcement and punishment
What is the process of operant shaping?
It is the process of reinforcing behavior gradually to target specific behaviors
What is the process of operant extinction?
Results from some response by the organism no longer being reinforced; lack of consequences lead to a decrease in conditioned response
What is reinforcement? What are the types of reinforcement?
It is the process of increasing the likelihood that an individual will perform a behavior; It can be positive or negative
What is positive reinforcement?
Increase the frequency of a behavior by adding a positive consequence or incentive following a desired behavior
What is negative reinforcement?
Increase the frequency of a behavior by removing something unpleasant
What is an operant primary?
It is a natural reinforcer that increases the chance of an individual to perform a behavior
What is operant conditional?
It is known as a secondary reinforce, a certain object or method is conditioned to increase a behavior
What is punishment? What are the types of punishment?
It is the process of using conditioning to reduce the occurrence of a behavior; it can be positive or negative
What is positive punishment?
It is the addition of an unpleasant consequence in response to a behavior to reduce that behavior