Flashcards in 7C: Attitude and behavior change Deck (54):
What is habituation?
This describes a decrease in response to a stimuli due to repeated exposure
What is dishabituation?
This describes a recovery of the original response to a stimuli after habituation has occured
When is dishabituation most common?
This is most common when a second stimulus is presented and it interrupts the habituation process and causes an increase in response to the original stimulus
What is learning?
It is the way in which we acquire new behaviors; change in behavior that occurs in response to a stimulus
What are the two types of learning?
1. Associative Learning
2. Observational Learning
What is Associative Learning?
It is the creation of a pairing either between two stimuli or between a behavior and a response
What are the two subtypes of Associative Learning?
1. Classical Conditioning
2. Operant Conditioning
Describe Classical Conditioning
It takes advantage of biological, instinctual responses to create associations between two unrelated stimuli
What are the stimuli involved in classical conditioning?
What is a neutral stimuli? (NS)
A stimulus that does not trigger a reflexive response
What is a conditioned stimuli? (CS)
A stimulus that was initially neutral but conditioned to produce a reflexive response
What is an unconditioned stimuli? (UCS)
A stimulus that is not affected by conditioning, any that brings a reflexive response
What is an unconditioned response?
It is an innate or reflexive response that occurs without any conditioning
What is a conditioned response?
A reflexive response produced from a conditioned stimulus
What is acquisition?
It is the process of pairing an unconditioned stimuli with a neutral stimuli to create a conditioned stimuli
What is classical extinction?
This process occurs when the organism becomes habituated to the conditioned stimulus
What is spontaneous recovery?
This process occurs when the extinct conditioned stimuli is presented and a conditioned response reappears
What is generalization?
This is the effect by which a stimulus similar enough to the conditioned stimulus can also produce a conditioned response
What is discrimination?
This describes an organism learning to distinguish between two similar stimuli
Describe Operant Conditioning
This is a process of behavior learning;
It links voluntary behavior with consequences in an effort to alter the frequency of those behaviors;
It relies on reinforcement and punishment
What is the process of operant shaping?
It is the process of reinforcing behavior gradually to target specific behaviors
What is the process of operant extinction?
Results from some response by the organism no longer being reinforced; lack of consequences lead to a decrease in conditioned response
What is reinforcement? What are the types of reinforcement?
It is the process of increasing the likelihood that an individual will perform a behavior; It can be positive or negative
What is positive reinforcement?
Increase the frequency of a behavior by adding a positive consequence or incentive following a desired behavior
What is negative reinforcement?
Increase the frequency of a behavior by removing something unpleasant
What is an operant primary?
It is a natural reinforcer that increases the chance of an individual to perform a behavior
What is operant conditional?
It is known as a secondary reinforce, a certain object or method is conditioned to increase a behavior
What is punishment? What are the types of punishment?
It is the process of using conditioning to reduce the occurrence of a behavior; it can be positive or negative
What is positive punishment?
It is the addition of an unpleasant consequence in response to a behavior to reduce that behavior
What is negative punishment?
It is the reduction of a behavior when a stimulus is removed
What are reinforcement schedules?
They are the rate at which desired behaviors are acquired; affected by the schedule being used to affect those behaviors
What are the types of reinforcement schedules? Which works the fastest?
1. Fixed Ratio
2. Variable Ratio
3. Fixed Interval
4. Variable Interval
Variable ratio works the fastest
What are Fixed-Ratio Schedules?
These reinforce a behavior after a specific number of performance of that behavior
What is Continuous Reinforcement?
A fixed-ratio schedule in which the behavior is rewarded every time it is performed
What are Variable-Ratio Schedules?
These reinforce a behavior after a varying number of performances of the behavior but such that the average number of performances to receive a reward is relatively constant
What are Fixed-Interval Schedules?
Reinforcement of a behavior after a specific time period has elapsed (e.g. every 60 seconds a reward is given)
What are Variable-Interval Schedules?
Reinforcement of a behavior in varying time intervals (reward given at different times)
What is Escape Learning?
The behavior is performed to decrease the unpleasantness of something that already exists or has happened
e.g. Taking a painkiller in order to escape the pain of a headache
What is Avoidance Learning?
The behavior is performed to prevent the unpleasantness of something that has yet to happen
e.g. Studying for the MCAT so that you get a good score
What role do cognitive processes play in associative learning?
It is possible to learn via latent learning (spontaneously), problem-solving (by observing a situation and deciding what action to take) and instincts (genetic component)
What is Observational Learning?
It is the process of learning a new behavior or gaining information by watching others
What processes are involved in observational learning?
Describe the process of observational learning
First one pays attention to what is going on, the information is recognized and remembered, the information/behavior is reproduced and then there is external reinforcement (motivation)
Why is modeling important?
It's important because observational learning can positively or negatively influence people depending on what observers perceive around them
How do mirror neurons work?
They fire when one is performing an action AND one is observing someone else perform an action
When one is expericing an emotion AND observing others experiencing the same emotion
Where are mirror neurons found?
They are found in the frontal and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex
What are the effects observational learning can have on individual behavior?
Prosocial and Antisocial Effects
What are prosocial effects?
They are the positive consequences on an individuals behavior that they learn from observing their family, neighborhood, TV and other media
What are antisocial effects?
They are the negative consequences on an individuals behavior that they learn from observing their family, neighborhoods, TV and other media
What is the elaboration likelihood model?
It's a model that separates individuals on a continuum based on their processing of persuasive information; there are 2 extremes: those who elaborate extensively and focus on extreme detail and those who do not elaborate and focus on superficial details
What is central route processing?
This is deep thinking, these individuals think deeply about information, scrutinize its meaning and purpose and draw conclusions or make decisions based on this thought.
What is peripheral route processing?
This is essentially shallow thinking, these individuals focus on superficial detail, the appear of a person, catchphrases, slogans and credibility.
What is Social Cognitive Theory?
This theory postulates that people learn how to behave and shape attitudes by observing the behaviors of others; behavior is learned through direct observation and replication of the actions of others