7C: Attitude and behavior change Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 7C: Attitude and behavior change Deck (54)
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What is habituation?

This describes a decrease in response to a stimuli due to repeated exposure


What is dishabituation?

This describes a recovery of the original response to a stimuli after habituation has occured


When is dishabituation most common?

This is most common when a second stimulus is presented and it interrupts the habituation process and causes an increase in response to the original stimulus


What is learning?

It is the way in which we acquire new behaviors; change in behavior that occurs in response to a stimulus


What are the two types of learning?

1. Associative Learning
2. Observational Learning


What is Associative Learning?

It is the creation of a pairing either between two stimuli or between a behavior and a response


What are the two subtypes of Associative Learning?

1. Classical Conditioning
2. Operant Conditioning


Describe Classical Conditioning

It takes advantage of biological, instinctual responses to create associations between two unrelated stimuli


What are the stimuli involved in classical conditioning?

Unconditioned Stimuli
Conditioned Stimuli
Neutral Stimuli


What is a neutral stimuli? (NS)

A stimulus that does not trigger a reflexive response


What is a conditioned stimuli? (CS)

A stimulus that was initially neutral but conditioned to produce a reflexive response


What is an unconditioned stimuli? (UCS)

A stimulus that is not affected by conditioning, any that brings a reflexive response


What is an unconditioned response?

It is an innate or reflexive response that occurs without any conditioning


What is a conditioned response?

A reflexive response produced from a conditioned stimulus


What is acquisition?

It is the process of pairing an unconditioned stimuli with a neutral stimuli to create a conditioned stimuli


What is classical extinction?

This process occurs when the organism becomes habituated to the conditioned stimulus


What is spontaneous recovery?

This process occurs when the extinct conditioned stimuli is presented and a conditioned response reappears


What is generalization?

This is the effect by which a stimulus similar enough to the conditioned stimulus can also produce a conditioned response


What is discrimination?

This describes an organism learning to distinguish between two similar stimuli


Describe Operant Conditioning

This is a process of behavior learning;

It links voluntary behavior with consequences in an effort to alter the frequency of those behaviors;

It relies on reinforcement and punishment


What is the process of operant shaping?

It is the process of reinforcing behavior gradually to target specific behaviors


What is the process of operant extinction?

Results from some response by the organism no longer being reinforced; lack of consequences lead to a decrease in conditioned response


What is reinforcement? What are the types of reinforcement?

It is the process of increasing the likelihood that an individual will perform a behavior; It can be positive or negative


What is positive reinforcement?

Increase the frequency of a behavior by adding a positive consequence or incentive following a desired behavior


What is negative reinforcement?

Increase the frequency of a behavior by removing something unpleasant


What is an operant primary?

It is a natural reinforcer that increases the chance of an individual to perform a behavior


What is operant conditional?

It is known as a secondary reinforce, a certain object or method is conditioned to increase a behavior


What is punishment? What are the types of punishment?

It is the process of using conditioning to reduce the occurrence of a behavior; it can be positive or negative


What is positive punishment?

It is the addition of an unpleasant consequence in response to a behavior to reduce that behavior


What is negative punishment?

It is the reduction of a behavior when a stimulus is removed