7C: Attitude and behavior change Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 7C: Attitude and behavior change Deck (54)
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1

What is habituation?

This describes a decrease in response to a stimuli due to repeated exposure

2

What is dishabituation?

This describes a recovery of the original response to a stimuli after habituation has occured

3

When is dishabituation most common?

This is most common when a second stimulus is presented and it interrupts the habituation process and causes an increase in response to the original stimulus

4

What is learning?

It is the way in which we acquire new behaviors; change in behavior that occurs in response to a stimulus

5

What are the two types of learning?

1. Associative Learning
2. Observational Learning

6

What is Associative Learning?

It is the creation of a pairing either between two stimuli or between a behavior and a response

7

What are the two subtypes of Associative Learning?

1. Classical Conditioning
2. Operant Conditioning

8

Describe Classical Conditioning

It takes advantage of biological, instinctual responses to create associations between two unrelated stimuli

9

What are the stimuli involved in classical conditioning?

Unconditioned Stimuli
Conditioned Stimuli
Neutral Stimuli

10

What is a neutral stimuli? (NS)

A stimulus that does not trigger a reflexive response

11

What is a conditioned stimuli? (CS)

A stimulus that was initially neutral but conditioned to produce a reflexive response

12

What is an unconditioned stimuli? (UCS)

A stimulus that is not affected by conditioning, any that brings a reflexive response

13

What is an unconditioned response?

It is an innate or reflexive response that occurs without any conditioning

14

What is a conditioned response?

A reflexive response produced from a conditioned stimulus

15

What is acquisition?

It is the process of pairing an unconditioned stimuli with a neutral stimuli to create a conditioned stimuli

16

What is classical extinction?

This process occurs when the organism becomes habituated to the conditioned stimulus

17

What is spontaneous recovery?

This process occurs when the extinct conditioned stimuli is presented and a conditioned response reappears

18

What is generalization?

This is the effect by which a stimulus similar enough to the conditioned stimulus can also produce a conditioned response

19

What is discrimination?

This describes an organism learning to distinguish between two similar stimuli

20

Describe Operant Conditioning

This is a process of behavior learning;

It links voluntary behavior with consequences in an effort to alter the frequency of those behaviors;

It relies on reinforcement and punishment

21

What is the process of operant shaping?

It is the process of reinforcing behavior gradually to target specific behaviors

22

What is the process of operant extinction?

Results from some response by the organism no longer being reinforced; lack of consequences lead to a decrease in conditioned response

23

What is reinforcement? What are the types of reinforcement?

It is the process of increasing the likelihood that an individual will perform a behavior; It can be positive or negative

24

What is positive reinforcement?

Increase the frequency of a behavior by adding a positive consequence or incentive following a desired behavior

25

What is negative reinforcement?

Increase the frequency of a behavior by removing something unpleasant

26

What is an operant primary?

It is a natural reinforcer that increases the chance of an individual to perform a behavior

27

What is operant conditional?

It is known as a secondary reinforce, a certain object or method is conditioned to increase a behavior

28

What is punishment? What are the types of punishment?

It is the process of using conditioning to reduce the occurrence of a behavior; it can be positive or negative

29

What is positive punishment?

It is the addition of an unpleasant consequence in response to a behavior to reduce that behavior

30

What is negative punishment?

It is the reduction of a behavior when a stimulus is removed