7C: Attitude and behavior change Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 7C: Attitude and behavior change Deck (54):

What is habituation?

This describes a decrease in response to a stimuli due to repeated exposure


What is dishabituation?

This describes a recovery of the original response to a stimuli after habituation has occured


When is dishabituation most common?

This is most common when a second stimulus is presented and it interrupts the habituation process and causes an increase in response to the original stimulus


What is learning?

It is the way in which we acquire new behaviors; change in behavior that occurs in response to a stimulus


What are the two types of learning?

1. Associative Learning
2. Observational Learning


What is Associative Learning?

It is the creation of a pairing either between two stimuli or between a behavior and a response


What are the two subtypes of Associative Learning?

1. Classical Conditioning
2. Operant Conditioning


Describe Classical Conditioning

It takes advantage of biological, instinctual responses to create associations between two unrelated stimuli


What are the stimuli involved in classical conditioning?

Unconditioned Stimuli
Conditioned Stimuli
Neutral Stimuli


What is a neutral stimuli? (NS)

A stimulus that does not trigger a reflexive response


What is a conditioned stimuli? (CS)

A stimulus that was initially neutral but conditioned to produce a reflexive response


What is an unconditioned stimuli? (UCS)

A stimulus that is not affected by conditioning, any that brings a reflexive response


What is an unconditioned response?

It is an innate or reflexive response that occurs without any conditioning


What is a conditioned response?

A reflexive response produced from a conditioned stimulus


What is acquisition?

It is the process of pairing an unconditioned stimuli with a neutral stimuli to create a conditioned stimuli


What is classical extinction?

This process occurs when the organism becomes habituated to the conditioned stimulus


What is spontaneous recovery?

This process occurs when the extinct conditioned stimuli is presented and a conditioned response reappears


What is generalization?

This is the effect by which a stimulus similar enough to the conditioned stimulus can also produce a conditioned response


What is discrimination?

This describes an organism learning to distinguish between two similar stimuli


Describe Operant Conditioning

This is a process of behavior learning;

It links voluntary behavior with consequences in an effort to alter the frequency of those behaviors;

It relies on reinforcement and punishment


What is the process of operant shaping?

It is the process of reinforcing behavior gradually to target specific behaviors


What is the process of operant extinction?

Results from some response by the organism no longer being reinforced; lack of consequences lead to a decrease in conditioned response


What is reinforcement? What are the types of reinforcement?

It is the process of increasing the likelihood that an individual will perform a behavior; It can be positive or negative


What is positive reinforcement?

Increase the frequency of a behavior by adding a positive consequence or incentive following a desired behavior


What is negative reinforcement?

Increase the frequency of a behavior by removing something unpleasant


What is an operant primary?

It is a natural reinforcer that increases the chance of an individual to perform a behavior


What is operant conditional?

It is known as a secondary reinforce, a certain object or method is conditioned to increase a behavior


What is punishment? What are the types of punishment?

It is the process of using conditioning to reduce the occurrence of a behavior; it can be positive or negative


What is positive punishment?

It is the addition of an unpleasant consequence in response to a behavior to reduce that behavior


What is negative punishment?

It is the reduction of a behavior when a stimulus is removed


What are reinforcement schedules?

They are the rate at which desired behaviors are acquired; affected by the schedule being used to affect those behaviors


What are the types of reinforcement schedules? Which works the fastest?

1. Fixed Ratio
2. Variable Ratio
3. Fixed Interval
4. Variable Interval

Variable ratio works the fastest


What are Fixed-Ratio Schedules?

These reinforce a behavior after a specific number of performance of that behavior


What is Continuous Reinforcement?

A fixed-ratio schedule in which the behavior is rewarded every time it is performed


What are Variable-Ratio Schedules?

These reinforce a behavior after a varying number of performances of the behavior but such that the average number of performances to receive a reward is relatively constant


What are Fixed-Interval Schedules?

Reinforcement of a behavior after a specific time period has elapsed (e.g. every 60 seconds a reward is given)


What are Variable-Interval Schedules?

Reinforcement of a behavior in varying time intervals (reward given at different times)


What is Escape Learning?

The behavior is performed to decrease the unpleasantness of something that already exists or has happened

e.g. Taking a painkiller in order to escape the pain of a headache


What is Avoidance Learning?

The behavior is performed to prevent the unpleasantness of something that has yet to happen

e.g. Studying for the MCAT so that you get a good score


What role do cognitive processes play in associative learning?

It is possible to learn via latent learning (spontaneously), problem-solving (by observing a situation and deciding what action to take) and instincts (genetic component)


What is Observational Learning?

It is the process of learning a new behavior or gaining information by watching others


What processes are involved in observational learning?



Describe the process of observational learning

First one pays attention to what is going on, the information is recognized and remembered, the information/behavior is reproduced and then there is external reinforcement (motivation)


Why is modeling important?

It's important because observational learning can positively or negatively influence people depending on what observers perceive around them


How do mirror neurons work?

They fire when one is performing an action AND one is observing someone else perform an action


When one is expericing an emotion AND observing others experiencing the same emotion


Where are mirror neurons found?

They are found in the frontal and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex


What are the effects observational learning can have on individual behavior?

Prosocial and Antisocial Effects


What are prosocial effects?

They are the positive consequences on an individuals behavior that they learn from observing their family, neighborhood, TV and other media


What are antisocial effects?

They are the negative consequences on an individuals behavior that they learn from observing their family, neighborhoods, TV and other media


What is the elaboration likelihood model?

It's a model that separates individuals on a continuum based on their processing of persuasive information; there are 2 extremes: those who elaborate extensively and focus on extreme detail and those who do not elaborate and focus on superficial details


What is central route processing?

This is deep thinking, these individuals think deeply about information, scrutinize its meaning and purpose and draw conclusions or make decisions based on this thought.


What is peripheral route processing?

This is essentially shallow thinking, these individuals focus on superficial detail, the appear of a person, catchphrases, slogans and credibility.


What is Social Cognitive Theory?

This theory postulates that people learn how to behave and shape attitudes by observing the behaviors of others; behavior is learned through direct observation and replication of the actions of others


What are the factors that affect attitude change?

Changes in behavior, social factors