Flashcards in 6B: Making sense of the environment Deck (148)
What is Attention?
Refers to concentrating on one aspect of the sensory environment (sensorium)
What is Selective Attention?
Focusing on one part of the environment while ignoring the other stimuli; if the stimulus is attended to, it's passed through a filter and further analyzed
What is Divided Attention?
The ability to perform multiple tasks at the same time
What is Controlled Processing?
Providing undivided attention to a new or complex task
What is Automatic Processing?
The performance of familiar or routine actions which allow the brain to focus on other task with divided attention
What is the Information Processing Model?
It is the idea that our mind can convert, retain and recover information much like a computer
What are the three systems of information processing model?
Sensory, Short-Term and Long-Term Memory
What are Piaget's Stage of Cognitive Development?
Sensorimotor Stage (Age and description)
Age: Birth to 2 Years Old
Child learns to manipulate his or her environment in order to meet physical needs
Sensorimotor Stage (Reactions)
Primary = repetition of body movement
Secondary = manipulation of something outside that body
Understanding that objects continue to exist when out of view, which marks the beginning of representational thought, marks the end of the sensorimotor stage
Preoperational Stage (Age and description)
Age: 2 to 7
Characterized by symbolic thinking, egocentrism and centration
the ability to pretend, play make-believe and have an imagination
the inability to imagine what another person may think or feel
tendency to focus on only one aspect of a phenomenon or inability to understand the concept of conservation
Concrete Operational Stage (Age and description)
Age: 7 to 11
Children understand conversation and consider the perspective of others; able to engage in logical thought; make judgments
Formal Operational Stage
Age: (11+) Adolescence to Adulthood
The ability to think logically about abstract ideas and reason about abstract concepts as well as problem solve
What cognitive changes occur in late adulthood?
Difficulty remembering information,
Forgetting verbal information,
Reduction of blood flow to the brain,
Loss of neurons
Characteristics of Dementia
Loss of muscle control,
Shrinking of brain tissue
What is the role of culture in cognitive development?
The idea is that culture shapes and determines how individuals learn and perceive the world around them
What are the beliefs of cognitive development by Vygotsky & Piaget?
Vygotsky believed it varied across culture
Piaget believed it was universal
How does culture affect intellectual adaptation?
It affects reasoning, problem solving, speech, signs, symbols and attitude
How does heredity influence cognitive development?
Genetic makeup affects a persons qualities
How does environment influence cognitive development?
Physical and behavioral experiences affect a persons qualities
What do dizygotic twin studies show?
If intelligence is the same it is due to environment, if its different it is due to genetics
What do monozygotic twin studies show?
If intelligence is the same it is due to genetics, if its different it is due to the environment
What are the types of problem solving?
Trial & Error, Deductive and Inductive Reasoning, Means-end analysis, Lateral thinking, Reduction
Inductive Reasoning (Bottom-Up)
Starts with specific ideas and then draw conclusions from them; observation -> theory
Deductive Reasoning (Top-Down)
Starts from a set of general rules and draws conclusions from the information given; theory -> confirmation