Flashcards in 6B: Making sense of the environment Deck (148):
What is Attention?
Refers to concentrating on one aspect of the sensory environment (sensorium)
What is Selective Attention?
Focusing on one part of the environment while ignoring the other stimuli; if the stimulus is attended to, it's passed through a filter and further analyzed
What is Divided Attention?
The ability to perform multiple tasks at the same time
What is Controlled Processing?
Providing undivided attention to a new or complex task
What is Automatic Processing?
The performance of familiar or routine actions which allow the brain to focus on other task with divided attention
What is the Information Processing Model?
It is the idea that our mind can convert, retain and recover information much like a computer
What are the three systems of information processing model?
Sensory, Short-Term and Long-Term Memory
What are Piaget's Stage of Cognitive Development?
Sensorimotor Stage (Age and description)
Age: Birth to 2 Years Old
Child learns to manipulate his or her environment in order to meet physical needs
Sensorimotor Stage (Reactions)
Primary = repetition of body movement
Secondary = manipulation of something outside that body
Understanding that objects continue to exist when out of view, which marks the beginning of representational thought, marks the end of the sensorimotor stage
Preoperational Stage (Age and description)
Age: 2 to 7
Characterized by symbolic thinking, egocentrism and centration
the ability to pretend, play make-believe and have an imagination
the inability to imagine what another person may think or feel
tendency to focus on only one aspect of a phenomenon or inability to understand the concept of conservation
Concrete Operational Stage (Age and description)
Age: 7 to 11
Children understand conversation and consider the perspective of others; able to engage in logical thought; make judgments
Formal Operational Stage
Age: (11+) Adolescence to Adulthood
The ability to think logically about abstract ideas and reason about abstract concepts as well as problem solve
What cognitive changes occur in late adulthood?
Difficulty remembering information,
Forgetting verbal information,
Reduction of blood flow to the brain,
Loss of neurons
Characteristics of Dementia
Loss of muscle control,
Shrinking of brain tissue
What is the role of culture in cognitive development?
The idea is that culture shapes and determines how individuals learn and perceive the world around them
What are the beliefs of cognitive development by Vygotsky & Piaget?
Vygotsky believed it varied across culture
Piaget believed it was universal
How does culture affect intellectual adaptation?
It affects reasoning, problem solving, speech, signs, symbols and attitude
How does heredity influence cognitive development?
Genetic makeup affects a persons qualities
How does environment influence cognitive development?
Physical and behavioral experiences affect a persons qualities
What do dizygotic twin studies show?
If intelligence is the same it is due to environment, if its different it is due to genetics
What do monozygotic twin studies show?
If intelligence is the same it is due to genetics, if its different it is due to the environment
What are the types of problem solving?
Trial & Error, Deductive and Inductive Reasoning, Means-end analysis, Lateral thinking, Reduction
Inductive Reasoning (Bottom-Up)
Starts with specific ideas and then draw conclusions from them; observation -> theory
Deductive Reasoning (Top-Down)
Starts from a set of general rules and draws conclusions from the information given; theory -> confirmation
Trial & Error
Various solutions are tried until one is found that seems to work
Set ultimate goal and then determine strategy to attain that goal
Approach problems indirectly and creatively
Find a solution of another problem to solve the original problem
What are the 4 barriers to problem solving?
Confirmation Bias, Mental Set, Unnecessary Constraints and Irrelevant Information
Unconscious corruption of an idea that leads to favoring a predetermined opinion in the process of problem solving
Inclination to attempt strategies that were repeatedly unsuccessful previously
Subconscious mind fixes onto a particular way to solve a given problem
Unrelated or unimportant information that makes it difficult to find solution
What are Heuristics? What are the types?
Simplified principles used to make decisions; based on experience and can speed up the process to find solutions by mental shortcuts;
1. Educated Guess
2. Intuitive Judgment
3. Common Sense
4. Rule of Thumb
What is Bias? Confirmation Bias?
It is a restriction into thinking a certain way that causes deviation from making good judgments and thinking rationally;
Confirmation Bias is the tendency to focus on information that fits an individuals belief while rejecting information that goes against them
What is intuition?
Ability to attain information through inner perception, occurs without a specific reason and it's very difficult to verify or justify
What is emotion?
Conscious expression of biological reactions and mental states; associated with personality, environment influence, mood, temperament and motivation; additionally influenced by hormones
What is overconfidence?
It is a tendency to erroneously interpret one's decisions, knowledge and beliefs as infallible; it is a bias that is established very well
What is belief perseverance?
An initial belief that persists even after the initial evidence is removed
What are Howard Gardner's seven types of intelligence?
What are some heredity influences on intelligence?
Traits are passed down each generation with variation
What are some environmental influences on intelligence?
Nutrition, stress, pressure, sociocultural (family, education)
Variations on Intellectual Ability are measured using
Formula for IQ
(Mental Age/Chronological Age) x 100
What are the states of consciousness?
Alert, Sleep, Dreaming and Altered
What is Alertness?
It is a state of active attention and ready to respond to stimuli
Which brain structures maintain alertness?
Reticular Formation in the Brainstem
Which hormone is involved with alertness?
What is sleep?
Natural state associated with inhibited sensory activity and most voluntary muscles
What are the stages of sleep?
Non-REM Stage 1
Between sleep and awake
Muscles are active
Eyes move slowly
Sensation of falling
Non-REM Stage 2
Eye movement stops
More difficult to wake up
Non-REM Stage 3
Deep sleep stage
Slow wave sleep
Body repairs and regrows tissues, build bone and muscle
REM Stage 4
Occurs after 90 minutes
Increased HR and BR
Called paradoxical sleep because the EEG and physiology mimics an awake individual
High frequency and occur when a person is alert or attending to a mental task that requires concentration - when neurons are randomly firing
When a person is awake but relaxing with their eyes closed; slower than beta waves and more synchronized
Appear once a person falls asleep; slow frequencies and high voltage
Low frequency, high voltage and associated with cognitive recovery and memory consolidation and growth hormone release
How is sleep controlled?
By circadian rhythms and sleep-wake homeostasis
Which glands, molecules and structures are involved in the circadian rhythms?
What are the theories of dreaming?
What is the Activation-Synthesis Theory?
Dreams are caused by widespread, random activation of neural circuitry; Activation mimics incoming sensory information and leads to cortex activity
What is the Problem-Solving Theory?
Dreams are a way to solve problems while you are sleeping; they are untethered by rules of the real world and allow interpretation of obstacles differently than during waking hours
What is the Cognitive Process Theory?
Dreams are a sleeping counterpart of stream-of-consciousness; the content of a dream rapidly shift and change
What are Sleep Disorders?
They are ailments that disrupt the sleep patterns
What are sleep disorders classified as?
Dyssomnias or Parasomnias
Make it difficult to sleep, stay asleep or avoid sleep
A dyssomnia that causes difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep
A dyssomnia that involves lack of voluntary control over onset of sleep
A dyssomnia that involves the inability to breathe during sleep; can be obstructive or central
Abnormal movements or behaviors during sleep and include night terrors or sleepwalking
Parasomnia that involve periods of intense anxiety that occur during slow-wave sleep
Types of Treatment for Sleep Disorders
Medication, Rehabilitation, Behavior/Psychotherapeutic Treatment, Hypnosis
A state in which a person appears to be in control of his or her normal functions but is in a highly suggestible state; person can focus on taking suggestions
Produces a sense of relaxation and relief from anxiety and worrying can cause physiological changes such as decreased HR and BP
What are the type of consciousness altering drugs?
Depressants (Alcohol, Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines)
Stimulants (Amphetamines, Cocaine, Ecstasy, Nicotine, Caffeine)
Opiates & Opioids (Morphine, Codeine, Oxycodone, Hydrocodone, Heroin)
Hallucinogens (Marijuana, LSD, PCP, Mescaline)
How do Depressants affect the body? Which neurotransmitters are affected?
They reduce nervous system activity and result in a sense of relaxation and reduced anxiety;
Increases production of GABA and Decrease production of Acetylcholine
How do Stimulants affect the body? Which neurotransmitters are affected?
They increase the arousal of the nervous system by increasing frequency of AP;
Blocks the uptake of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin
How do Opiates & Opioids affect the body? Which neurotransmitters are affected?
They bind to opioid receptors in the nervous system and cause decreased reaction to pain and a sense of euphoria; acts as a natural pain reducer
How do Hallucinogens affect the body? Which neurotransmitters are affected?
Act on cannabinoid receptors, glycine receptors and opioid receptors; increases GABA and Dopamine activity causing neural inhibition and euphoria
Mimics serotonin and epinephrine
Which brain pathway is involved in drug addiction?
Mesolimbic Reward Pathway; involved in motivation and emotional response - which accounts for positive reinforcement of substance use and produces psychological dependence
Which brain structures are involved in drug addiction?
Ventral Tegmental Area
Medial Forebrain Bundle
What is Encoding?
The process of putting new information into memory
What is Automatic Processing?
When information is obtained without effort
What is Controlled Processing?
When information is obtained with effort, also known as active memorization
What are the 3 types of encoding? Which of them is weakest or strongest?
Visual Encoding = visualizing information (weakest)
Acoustic Encoding = storing the way information sounds
Semantic Encoding = putting information into a meaningful context (strongest)
What is the self-reference effect?
The tendency to better recall information that we can put into the context of our own lives
What are some processes that aid in encoding memories?
Grouping information into meaningful context
What is Maintenance Rehearsal?
It is the repetition of a piece of information to keep it within working memory or to store it in short term and eventually long term memory
What are Mnemonics?
These are ways to memorize information using acronyms or rhyming phrases in order to memorize large bits of information
What are the types of memory storage?
Sensory, Short Term, Working and Long Term
Describe Sensory Memory
It is the storage of memory through our senses; It's the most fleeting kind of memory, results in quick loss of information; consists of Iconic and Echoic
Describe Short-Term Memory
Fades quickly, <30 seconds, 7 +-2 rule limits to about 7 items
Describe Working Memory
Enables us to keep a few pieces of information in our consciousness simultaneously and manipulate that information; it is the processing of short term memories for effecting behaviors
Describe Long-Term Memory
It is the storage of information that can last from days to a lifetime
What are the kinds of long term memory?
Implicit & Explicit Memory
What is Implicit (Procedural) Memory?
Consists of skills and conditioned responses; also known as nondeclarative
What is Explicit (Declarative) Memory? What are the two types?
Memories that require conscious recall;
Semantic (facts we know)
Episodic (our experiences)
What are semantic networks?
This involves the memory of meanings, concepts, words or perceptual features are linked together based on similar meaning; each thing is like a node that activates another node
What is spreading activation?
The unconscious activation of other linked concepts
What is retrieval?
It is the process of demonstrating that something has been learned or has been retained
What is recall?
The retrieval and statement of previously learned information
What is recognition?
The process of identifying a piece of information that was previously learned
What is relearning?
It is a way demonstrating that information has been stored in long-term memory
What are retrieval cues?
These are 'tricks' that help facilitate recall which can be visual, auditory or olfactory
What is the serial position effect?
It's a retrieval cue that appears while learning lists - it shows that there is higher recall for the first few items on a list and the last few items on a list
What is the primacy effect?
Tendency to remember early items
What is the recency effect?
Tendency to remember later items
What role does emotion have in retrieving memories?
Neutral words give less of an impact than positive or negative words; Emotional words or sounds are more memorable than neutral sounds; Louder, enthusiastic speeches are more memorable phrases
What is forgetting?
Loss of memorized information
What are some memory disorders?
Alzheimers, Korsakoffs, Agnosia
Thought to be linked to a loss of acetylcholine in neurons that link to the hippocampus; progressive dementia, retrograde memory loss, plaques and tangles
Memory loss caused by thiamine deficiency in the brain; associated with excessive alcohol consumption
What are the types of amnesia?
Retrograde = loss of previously formed memories
Anterograde = inability to form new memories
What is confabulation?
The process of creating vivid but fabricated memories, which is thought to be an attempt by the brain to fill in memory gaps
What is agnosia?
Loss of the ability to recognize objects, people or sounds
What is decay?
The natural loss of memories overtime as the neurochemical trace of a short term memory fades; long term memory is more resistant to being forgotten
What is Interference? What are the types?
A retrieval error caused by the existence of other (usually similar) information; There is proactive and retroactive
What is proactive interference?
Old information interferes with new learning
(learning a new address being interfered with by an old address)
What is retroactive interference?
New information causes forgetting of old information
(professors learning new sets of students name forgetting the old ones)
What is memory construction?
Memories are heavily influenced by our thoughts and feelings both while the event is occurring and later during the recall
What is the misinformation effect?
Recent information causes the recall of episodic memories to be less accurate; misinformation influences the memory of an individual
What is source amnesia?
A memory construction error that involves confusion between semantic and episodic memory; remembering factual knowledge but not the context of how, when or where the knowledge was acquired
What is neuroplasticity?
The rapid formation of neural connections in response to stimuli as our brain develops
What is synaptic pruning?
Weak neural connections are broken while strong ones are reinforced
What is Long Term Potentiation?
It is the strengthening of synaptic activity due to repeated stimulus that allow neurons to become more efficient at releasing their neurotransmitters and an increase in the receptor site density on the post-synaptic neuron
How are learning and memory related?
Learning is acquiring knowledge or skill and Memory is acquiring information; they're dependent on each other
What are the theories of language development?
Social Interactionist Perspective
Describe the learning/behaviorist perspective of language development
B.F. Skinner argued that language is acquired through operant conditioning; speech is shaped by association, imitation and reinforcement; reinforcing words help children to imitate speech by babbling the sounds
Describe the nativist/biological perspective of language development
Noam Chomsky argued that humans are born with biological programming to learn language and there is an innate capacity for language; there is a language acquisition device, critical period and sensitive period
What is the Language Acquisition Device?
A theoretical pathway in the brain that allows infants to process and absorb language rules
What is the critical period?
Language acquisition between two years and puberty; if no language exposure occurs during this time, later training is ineffective
What is the sensitive period?
It is a time when environmental input has a maximal effect on the development of an ability
Describe the social interactionist perspective
Lev Vygotsky argued that language develops through collaborative learning; there is an interplay between biological and social processes; driven by the child's desire to communicate and behave in a social manner
What is the Whorfian Hypothesis?
It states that language determines one's thoughts; it suggests that our perception of reality is determined by the content of language
Which areas of the brain are associated with language and speech?
Broca's Area (Speech)
Wernicke's Area (Language Comprehension)
Describe Wernicke's Area
It is located in the superior temporal gyrus;
Responsible for the understanding of written and spoken words (language comprehension);
Damage results in Wernicke's Aphasia
Describe a patient with Wernicke's Aphasia (also known as Receptive Aphasia)
This patient would have retained motor production and fluency of speech but comprehension is lost; patient speaks nonsensical sounds and inappropriate word combinations devoid of meaning; they are unaware that they are not making any sense
Describe Broca's Area
It is located in the inferior frontal gyrus;
Responsible for controlling motor function of speech so it connects to the motor cortex;
Damage results in Broca's Aphasia
Describe a patient with Broca's Aphasia (Expressive Aphasia)
This patient would have a reduced or absent ability to produce spoken language; difficulty forming words; sentences are mostly verbs and nouns; language comprehension still intact; they are aware of their symptoms
Describe the Arcuate Fasciculus
It is a bundle of axons that connect broca's and wernicke's areas which allows for association between language comprehension and speech production; Damage results in Conduction Aphasia
What is Conduction Aphasia?
It is the inability for a patient to repeat something that has been said because the connection between the regions has been lost