8C: Social Interactions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 8C: Social Interactions Deck (62):
1

Status

Socially defined positions within a society

2

Types of Status

Master, Ascribed, Achieved

3

Master Status

Position that dominates

4

Ascribed Status

Position assigned to you by society regardless of effort

5

Achieved Status

Position that is earned

6

Role

Socially defined expectations about how a person will behave based on status

7

Role Conflict

When two or more statuses are held by an individual and there is conflict between the expectations for each

8

Role Strain

When you face conflicting expectations for a single role

9

Role Exit

When you transition from one role to another

10

Group

A collection of people that interact with one another

11

Primary Group

Small social group, close personal relationships, long lasting relationships; family/childhood friends

12

Secondary Group

Groups that someone chooses to be a part of, less personal, temporary, based on interest in activity; work groups

13

Networks

Web of social relationships; direct and indirect links to people; no hierarchy

14

Immediate Networks

Dense with strong ties to each other; friends

15

Distant Networks

Loose with weaker ties to each other; acquaintances

16

Organization

Large group of people w/ a common purpose, very complex, impersonal and lots of hierarchy

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Types of Organizations

Utilitarian, Normative, Coercive

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Utilitarian Organization

Members get paid for their efforts (jobs, businesses)

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Normative Organization

Members are motivated by morally relevant goals (doctors without borders)

20

Coercive Organization

Members are forced to join (prison)

21

Bureaucracy

Rational system of political organization, administration, discipline and control; less efficient due to their slow changing nature

22

6 characteristics of a Bureaucracy

Paid Officials
Officials with rights and privileges
Regular salary increases
Seniority rights
Promotion upon passing exams
Response for meeting demands

23

Iron Law of Oligarchy

Democratic or Bureaucratic systems naturally shift to being ruled by an elite group

24

Self-Presentation

The process of displaying oneself to society through culturally accepted behaviors; people use strategies to shape what others will think of them

25

Basic Model

There are universal emotion along with corresponding expressions which can be understood across culture

26

Social Construction Model

Emotions are solely based on situational context of social interactions

27

Display Rules

Unspoken rules that govern the expression of emotion

28

Cultural Syndrome

A shared set of beliefs, norms, values and behaviors organized round a central theme

29

How are emotions expressed and detected?

Through self-presentation, gender and culture

30

Self-Presentation

The way people try to control or influence the perceptions of other people

31

Gender Influence

Masculinity = aggressive and tough
Femininity = ladylike and emotional

32

Cultural Influence

Verbal expression, facial expression, non-verbal expressions

33

Impression Management
(Self-Presentation)

Our attempts to influence how others perceive us

34

The Authentic Self

Who the person actually is (positive and negative attributes)

35

The Ideal Self

Who we would like to be under optimal circumstances

36

The Tactical Self

Who we market ourselves to be when we adhere to others expectations of us

37

Impression Management Strategies

Self Disclosure
Managing Appearances
Ingratiation
Aligning Actions
Alter-casting

38

Self Disclosure

Giving information about oneself to establish an identity

39

Managing Appearances

Using appearance, emotional expression or associations to create a positive image

40

Ingratiation

Using flattery or conforming to expectations to win someone over

41

Aligning actions

Making questionable behavior acceptable through excuses

42

Alter-casting

Imposing an identity onto another person

43

Dramaturgical Perspective/Approach

We imagine ourselves as playing certain roles when interacting with others and as a result of that we have a front and back stage self

44

Front Stage Self

We perform according to the setting, role and script in order to conform to the image we want others to see

45

Back Stage Self

We let down our guard and be ourselves, when we are not being observed by an audience, without having to worry about ruining his performance

46

Verbal Communication

Transmission of information via the used of words, whether spoken, written or signed.

47

Nonverbal Communication

How people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally without words.

48

Animal Communication

Any behavior of one animal that affects the behavior of another; body language,
rudimentary facial expressions (baring teeth in dogs),
visual displays (peacocks plumage),
scents (pheromones, skunks) and vocalization (bird calls, growling).

49

Pheromones

Communication intraspecially (between members of the same species) and interspecially (between members of different species); they’re given off by members of a species to attract a mate. They can also be used to mark an animals territory or as a defense mechanism

50

Altruism

Selflessness toward other people

51

Game Theory

An attempt to explain decision-making behavior; game payoff refers to fitness

52

Discrimination

A specific way of acting toward a group or its members; it's a specific type of behavior

53

Individual Discrimination

When an individual treats another person/group negatively and different from others; involves exclusion or restriction of others

54

Institutional Discrimination

When a legal system, government, corporation, school or some other institution intentionally differentiate members of a group

55

What is the relationship between prejudice & discrimination?

They employ a circular relationship - one leads to the other

56

Which process is the result of behavior?
A. Stereotyping
B. Prejudice
C. Discrimination

C

57

Which process is the result of attitude?
A. Stereotyping
B. Prejudice
C. Discrimination

B

58

What is Illusory Correlation?

When a relationship is perceived between variables evven when no such relationship exists

59

What is Gemeinschaft?

A group unified by feelings of togetherness due to shared beliefs, ancestry or geography
e.g. Family

60

What is Gesellschaft?

A group unified by mutual self interest in achieving a goal
e.g. Company

61

What is Groupthink?

It is when the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in a consensual perspective without much though or alternative viewpoints

62

How does the groupthink phenomenon affect the group?

The members begin to focus solely on ideas generated within the group while ignoring outside ideas