Flashcards in 8C: Social Interactions Deck (62):
Socially defined positions within a society
Types of Status
Master, Ascribed, Achieved
Position that dominates
Position assigned to you by society regardless of effort
Position that is earned
Socially defined expectations about how a person will behave based on status
When two or more statuses are held by an individual and there is conflict between the expectations for each
When you face conflicting expectations for a single role
When you transition from one role to another
A collection of people that interact with one another
Small social group, close personal relationships, long lasting relationships; family/childhood friends
Groups that someone chooses to be a part of, less personal, temporary, based on interest in activity; work groups
Web of social relationships; direct and indirect links to people; no hierarchy
Dense with strong ties to each other; friends
Loose with weaker ties to each other; acquaintances
Large group of people w/ a common purpose, very complex, impersonal and lots of hierarchy
Types of Organizations
Utilitarian, Normative, Coercive
Members get paid for their efforts (jobs, businesses)
Members are motivated by morally relevant goals (doctors without borders)
Members are forced to join (prison)
Rational system of political organization, administration, discipline and control; less efficient due to their slow changing nature
6 characteristics of a Bureaucracy
Officials with rights and privileges
Regular salary increases
Promotion upon passing exams
Response for meeting demands
Iron Law of Oligarchy
Democratic or Bureaucratic systems naturally shift to being ruled by an elite group
The process of displaying oneself to society through culturally accepted behaviors; people use strategies to shape what others will think of them
There are universal emotion along with corresponding expressions which can be understood across culture
Social Construction Model
Emotions are solely based on situational context of social interactions
Unspoken rules that govern the expression of emotion
A shared set of beliefs, norms, values and behaviors organized round a central theme
How are emotions expressed and detected?
Through self-presentation, gender and culture
The way people try to control or influence the perceptions of other people
Masculinity = aggressive and tough
Femininity = ladylike and emotional
Verbal expression, facial expression, non-verbal expressions
Our attempts to influence how others perceive us
The Authentic Self
Who the person actually is (positive and negative attributes)
The Ideal Self
Who we would like to be under optimal circumstances
The Tactical Self
Who we market ourselves to be when we adhere to others expectations of us
Impression Management Strategies
Giving information about oneself to establish an identity
Using appearance, emotional expression or associations to create a positive image
Using flattery or conforming to expectations to win someone over
Making questionable behavior acceptable through excuses
Imposing an identity onto another person
We imagine ourselves as playing certain roles when interacting with others and as a result of that we have a front and back stage self
Front Stage Self
We perform according to the setting, role and script in order to conform to the image we want others to see
Back Stage Self
We let down our guard and be ourselves, when we are not being observed by an audience, without having to worry about ruining his performance
Transmission of information via the used of words, whether spoken, written or signed.
How people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally without words.
Any behavior of one animal that affects the behavior of another; body language,
rudimentary facial expressions (baring teeth in dogs),
visual displays (peacocks plumage),
scents (pheromones, skunks) and vocalization (bird calls, growling).
Communication intraspecially (between members of the same species) and interspecially (between members of different species); they’re given off by members of a species to attract a mate. They can also be used to mark an animals territory or as a defense mechanism
Selflessness toward other people
An attempt to explain decision-making behavior; game payoff refers to fitness
A specific way of acting toward a group or its members; it's a specific type of behavior
When an individual treats another person/group negatively and different from others; involves exclusion or restriction of others
When a legal system, government, corporation, school or some other institution intentionally differentiate members of a group
What is the relationship between prejudice & discrimination?
They employ a circular relationship - one leads to the other
Which process is the result of behavior?
Which process is the result of attitude?
What is Illusory Correlation?
When a relationship is perceived between variables evven when no such relationship exists
What is Gemeinschaft?
A group unified by feelings of togetherness due to shared beliefs, ancestry or geography
What is Gesellschaft?
A group unified by mutual self interest in achieving a goal
What is Groupthink?
It is when the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in a consensual perspective without much though or alternative viewpoints