3B: Structure and integrative functions of the main organ systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3B: Structure and integrative functions of the main organ systems Deck (115)
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1

Respiratory Pathway

Nares -> Nasal Cavity -> Pharynx -> Larynx -> Trachea -> Bronchi -> Bronchioles -> Alveoli

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Pharnyx

Warms and humidifies the air

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Vibrissae (Nasal Hairs)

Filters air

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Alveoli

Small sacs that interface with the pulmonary capillaries, allowing gases to diffuse across a one-cell-thick membrane

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Alveoli

Small sacs that interface with the pulmonary capillaries, allowing gases to diffuse across a one-cell-thick membrane

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Surfactant

Reduces surface tension at the liquid-gas interface which prevents collapse

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Types of Pleurae

Visceral Pleura
Parietal Pleura

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Visceral Pleura

Lies adjacent to the lung itself

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Parietal Pleura

Lines the chest wall

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Intrapleural Space

Lies between these two layers and contains a thin layer of fluid, which lubricates the two pleural spaces

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Diaphragm

Thin skeletal muscle that helps create pressure differential required for breathing

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External Intercostal Muscles + Diaphragm

Expands the thoracic cavity, increasing the volume of the intrapleural space - decreasing intrapleural pressure

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External Intercostal Muscles + Diaphragm

Expands the thoracic cavity, increasing the volume of the intrapleural space; decreasing intrapleural pressure

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Negative-Pressure Breathing

Pressure differential ultimately expands the lungs, dropping their pressure and drawing in air from the environment

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Passive Exhalation

Relaxation of the muscles of inspiration and elastic recoil of the lungs allowing the chest cavity to decrease in volume, reversing the pressure differentials seen inhalation

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Active Exhalation

The internal intercostal muscles and abdominal muscles can be used to forcibly decrease the volume of the thoracic cavity, pushing out air

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Spirometer

Used to measure lung capacities and volumes

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Total Lung Capacity (TLC)

Maximum volume of air in the lungs when one inhales completely

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Total Lung Capacity (TLC)

Maximum volume of air in the lungs when one inhales completely

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Residual Volume (RV)

Minimum volume of air in the lungs when one exhales completely

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Vital Capacity (VC)

Difference between the minimum and maximum volume of air in the lungs

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Tidal Volume (TV)

Volume of air inhaled or exhaled in a normal breath

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Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)

Volume of additional air that can be forcibly exhaled after a normal exhalation

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Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)

Volume of additional air that can be forcibly inhaled after a normal exhalation

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Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)

Volume of additional air that can be forcibly inhaled after a normal exhalation

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Ventilation Center

A collection of neurons in the medulla oblongata that regulate ventilation

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Hypercapnia/Hypercarbia

High concentrations of CO2 in blood detected by chemoreceptors

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Hypoxia

Low concentrations of O2 in the blood detected by chemoreceptors

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Control of Ventilation

Cerebrum, Medulla Oblongata (overrides cerebrum during periods of hypo or hyperventilation)

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Pulmonary Arteries

Brings deoxygenated blood with high CO2 concentration to the lungs