9A: Understanding social structure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9A: Understanding social structure Deck (41):
1

Macrosociology

Focuses on large groups and social structure

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Microsociology

Focuses on small groups and the individual

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What is social structure?

A system of people within a society organized by a characteristic pattern of relationships

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What is Functionalism? Who developed it?

It is the study of the structure and function of each part of society; Emile Durkheim

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How does Functionalism view society?

It views society as a living organism & if it's to function smoothly, the parts and systems must work together in harmony

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Function

Beneficial consequences of peoples actions; maintains social equilibrium

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Dysfunction

Harmful consequences of peoples actions; disrupts social equilibrium

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Manifest Function

Action intended to help some part of a system

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Latent Function

Unintended positive consequences on other parts of society

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What is Conflict Theory? Who developed it?

It is a competition for power; Karl Marx

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How does conflict theory work?

It states that power differentials are created and they contribute to the maintenance of social order

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What do power differentials lead to?

It leads to the dominance of a particular group if it successfully outcompetes other groups for

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What do people compete for?

People compete for social, political and material resources

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What is Symbolic Interactionism?

Study of the ways individuals interact through a shared understanding of words, gestures and other symbols; symbols (things to which we attach meaning) are key to understanding how we view the world and communicate with each other

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What do symbols include?

They are concepts in language, hand gesture and body language to the role of certain behaviors

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What is social constructionism?

Focuses on how individuals put together their social reality; this arises from humans communicating and working together to agree on the significance of a concept or principle

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What can social constructionism be applied to?

Physical objects such as money. Paper money and coinage do not inherently have significant value, however, as a society with imbue them with value and that they can be used to trade for goods and service

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What are social institutions?

Well-established social structures that dictate certain patterns of behavior or relationships and are accepted as a fundamental part of culture

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What are the 5 social institutions?

Education, Family, Religion, Government, Healthcare & Medicine

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What is Education?

It is an institution that aims to arm the population with information

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Family

It is a group of people affiliated by marriage and shared ancestors, it's influenced by culture, value, systems, beliefs, practices, gender, age, race, ethnicity etc.

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Religion

A pattern of social activities organized around a set of beliefs and practices that seek to address the meaning of existence; Play a role in patients understanding of diseases so they can impact healthcare decisions and can be an essential component of patients coping mechanisms

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Government & Economy

Systematic arrangements of political and capital relationships, activities and social structures that affect rule-making, representation of the individual in society, rights and privileges, division of labor and production of goods and services.

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What are the types of government?

Monarchy, Democracy, Authoritarianism, Totalitarianism

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Authoritarian Goverment

Citizens have no right or power to participate in the government

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Totalitarian Government

Government has control and power over citizen's lives in nearly all aspects

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What are the types of economic systems?

Capitalism and Socialism

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What is Health?

The total well-being of an individual

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What is Medicine?

The treatment for physical and mental illness of people in the society

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What are the key goals in American healthcare

To increase access to care, decrease cost of care, disease prevention, increase education for the public, decrease doctor knows best mentality

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What are the 4 key tenets of medical ethics?

Beneficence
Nonmaleficence
Patient Autonomy
Justice

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Beneficence

Responsible for patients best interest

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Nonmaleficence

Responsible for avoiding treatments or interventions in which the potential for harm outweighs the potential for benefit

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Patient Autonomy

Responsible for respecting patients decisions and choices about their own healthcare

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Justice

Responsible for treating similar patients with similar care and distribute healthcare resources fairly

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What is material culture?

Artifacts that have meaning for a given society

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What is symbolic culture?

The ideas that represent a group of people, tangible embodiment of underlying ideas of symbolic culture

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What is culture?

Encompasses the entire lifestyle for a given group. It binds nation-states, political institutions, marketplaces, religions and ideologies

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Values

What a person deems important in life, dictates their ethical principles

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Beliefs

What a person accepts to be truth

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Rituals

A formalized ceremony that involves a specific material object and additional mandates on acceptable behavior