2A (Organelles & Cytoskeleton) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2A (Organelles & Cytoskeleton) Deck (86):
1

Eukaryote

Have a true membrane bound nucleus, contains membrane bound organelles and undergo mitotic as well as meiotic division

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Eukaryote

Have a true membrane bound nucleus, contains membrane bound organelles and undergo mitotic as well as meiotic division

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Nucleus

Contain and protect DNA, Site of DNA replication and transcription, contains the nucleolus which is the site of ribosome assembly; consists of heterochromatin and euchromatin

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Nuclear Heterochromatin

Sequestered to the periphery

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Nuclear Euchromatin

Dispersed throughout the nucleus

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Nuclear Envelope

Separates genetic content into a distinct compartment of the cell, isolating it from other organelles and cytoplasm

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Nuclear Pores

Allow certain molecules to migrate into and out of the nucleus

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Nuclear Pores

Allow certain molecules to migrate into and out of the nucleus

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Storage of Genetic Information

dsDNA, in chromosomes, telomeres that help special DNA Pol that maintain the end of linear chromosomes

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Nuclear Pores

Allow certain molecules to migrate into and out of the nucleus; large proteins cannot pass through and are excluded from the nuclear interior

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Storage of Genetic Information

dsDNA, in chromosomes, telomeres that help special DNA Pol that maintain the end of linear chromosomes

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Mitochondria

Site of OXPHOS, consists of a matrix, inner and outer membrane

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Mitochondrial Matrix

Interior of the mitochondria that contains PDH and CAC enzymes

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Inner Mitochondrial Membrane

Location of the Electron Transport Chain and ATP Synthase

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Cristae

Inner folds of the mitochondrial membrane that increase the surface area available for ETC

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Outer Mitochondrial Membrane

Contains large pores that allow free passage of small molecules

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Intermembrane Space

The space between the membranes

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Mitochondrial Genome

Contains its own genome that is much smaller than the regular cellular genomes; single circular DNA molecule, replicates through binary fission

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Mitochondrial Genome

Contains its own genome that is much smaller than the regular cellular genomes; single circular DNA molecule, replicates through binary fission; inherited from the mother (ovum contains organelles)

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Mitochondrial Genome

Contains its own genome that is much smaller than the regular cellular genomes; single circular DNA molecule, replicates through binary fission; inherited from the mother (ovum contains organelles)

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Lysosomes

Membrane bound organelles that are responsible for degradation; utilizes hydrolytic enzymes

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Lysosomes

Membrane-bound organelles that utilize hydrolytic enzymes to break down biomolecules and cellular debris; optimally active at an acidic pH

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Lysosomes

Membrane-bound organelles that utilize hydrolytic enzymes to break down biomolecules and cellular debris; optimally active at an acidic pH (pH = 5)

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Lysosomes

Membrane-bound organelles that utilize hydrolytic enzymes to break down biomolecules and cellular debris; optimally active at an acidic pH (pH = 5)

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Endoplasmic Reticulum

An interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs known as cisternae;

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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Contains a large number of ribosomes on the surface and are the site of protein synthesis, folding, modification and export

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RER Ribosomes

Attach to the cytosolic side of the rough ER and synthesize protein into the lumen

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RER Role in Biosynthesis

It secretes transmembrane proteins that have a signal sequence designating their need for secretion that recruits a signal recognition particle (RER); SRP is cleaved off in the lumen of the RER

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RER Role in Biosynthesis
[Transmembrane Proteins]

It secretes transmembrane proteins that have a signal sequence designating their need for secretion that recruits a signal recognition particle (RER); SRP is cleaved off in the lumen of the RER

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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Lacks ribosomes and contains enzymes that are involved in biosynthesis of lipids, steroids and metabolism of carbohydrates and drugs

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SER Role in Biosynthesis
[Lipids]

Synthesizes lipids, phospholipids and steroids

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Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

Stores and pumps calcium ions, releases when the muscle cell is stimulated; plays roles in excitation-contraction coupling

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Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

Stores and pumps calcium ions, releases when the muscle cell is stimulated; plays roles in excitation-contraction coupling

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Golgi Apparatus

Packages proteins into membrane-bound vesicles inside the cell before the vesicles are sent to their destination; processes proteins for secretion and contains glycosylation enzymes

Cis Face receives transport vesicles from the ER
Trans Face sends secretory vesicles to the surface

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Glycosylation

Affects protein structure, function and protects it from degradation

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Glycosylation

Affects protein structure, function and protects it from degradation

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Peroxisomes
[Microbodies]

Involves in the catabolism of very long chain fatty acids (beta oxidation), amino acids, reduction of ROS [H2O2]; isoprenoid and cholesterol synthesis

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Peroxisomes
[Microbodies]

Involves in the catabolism of very long chain fatty acids (beta oxidation), amino acids, reduction of ROS [H2O2]; isoprenoid and cholesterol synthesis

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Cytoskeleton

An intracellular matrix that supports cell shape and gives mechanical resistance;
Provides structural support;
Allows for the movement of cells and its appendages;
Transports substances within the cell

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Cytoskeleton Components

Microtubules [Thick]
Intermediate Filaments
Microfilaments [Thin]

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Microfilament Protein

Actin

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Microfilament Characteristics

Flexible, Strong and Resist Buckling

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Microfilament Function

Cytokinesis, Amoeboid Movement and Cell Shape Change

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Microfilament Function

Cytokinesis, Amoeboid Movement and Cell Shape Change

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Microtubule Protein

Tubulin

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Microtubule Characteristics

Hollow rods of alpha and beta tubulin

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Microtubule Function

Mediates transport of substances within the cell; movement of secretory vesicles, organelles and intracellular macromolecular assemblies (using dynein and kinesin)

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Microfilament Characteristics

Flexible, Strong and Resist Buckling; bears compression

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Microtubule Characteristics

Hollow rods of alpha and beta tubulin; bears compression

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Microtubule Function

Mediates transport of substances within the cell; movement of secretory vesicles, organelles and intracellular macromolecular assemblies (using dynein and kinesin)

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Microtubule Structure

Mitotic Spindle, Cilia/Flagella

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Microtubule Structure

Mitotic Spindle, Cilia/Flagella

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Intermediate Filaments

Play a role in support, bearing tension - resisting mechanical stress

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Intermediate Filaments

Play a role in support, bearing tension - resisting mechanical stress

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Centrioles

Composed of tubulin; microtubules radiate out of the centrioles;

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Microtubule Organizing Center

Organizes flagella and cilia as well as the mitotic and meiotic spindle apparatus; known as basal bodies and centrosomes

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Epithelial Cells [Shape]

Squamous, Cuboidal, Columnar

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Epithelial Cells [Type]

Simple, Stratified, Pseudostratified

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Simple Squamous Epithelium

Endothelium, Capillaries, Alveolar

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Simple Cuboidal

Gland ducts, Kidney tubules

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Simple Columnar

Stomach and Gut

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Stratified Squamous

Skin

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Simple Epithelium Characteristics

Single cell layer, good for absorption, secretion, filtration and diffusion

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Stratified Epithelium Characteristics

Two or More Cell layers, good for protection against abrasion

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Stratified Epithelium Characteristics

Two or More Cell layers, good for protection against abrasion

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Endothelial Cells

Line the inside of organs and blood vessels; thin, single layer cells facilitated diffusion

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Endothelial Cells

Line the inside of organs and blood vessels; thin, single layer cells facilitated diffusion

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Connective Tissue Structure

Consists of cells and extracellular matrix

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Ground Substance

Glue that holds the matrix together

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Connective Tissue Fibers

Mostly collagen that gives the matrix strength

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Connective Tissue Fibers

Mostly collagen that gives the matrix strength

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Connective Tissue Types

Bone, Fat, Tendons, Ligaments, Cartilage and Blood

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Osteoblasts

Make Bone

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Fibroblasts

Make connective tissue proper (fats, tendons, ligaments)

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Chondroblasts

Make Cartilage

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Hematopoietic Stem Cells

Make Blood

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-blast

Stem cell that actively produces something

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-cyte

Mature cell that does 'housekeeping'

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-cyte

Mature cell that does 'housekeeping'

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Types of Fibers

Collagen, Elastic and Reticular

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Collagen Fibers

Strong and present in dense connective tissue

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Elastic Fiber

Stretchable

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Reticular Fibers

Branching, forms nets

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Reticular Fibers

Branching, forms nets

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Loose Connective Tissue

loose fibers with lots of ground substance

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Dense Connective Tissue

dense fibers with little ground substance, genuinely fibrous; tendon and ligaments